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An investigation to find out how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate (marble chips).

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Introduction

An investigation to find out how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate (marble chips) Planning The aim of my investigation is to find out how changing the concentration of acid affects the rate of the reaction between CaCO3 and HCl. To make my experiments fair tests, I will only change one variable: the concentration of the acid. I will have to keep the volume of the acid, the mass and size of the marble chips and the temperature of the acid the same in all my experiments to insure a fair test, because by changing any of the above I will change the conditions and therefore the results will be inaccurate and the rate of reaction will be affected. The products of the reaction between the hydrochloric acid and the marble chips are calcium chloride, water and carbon dioxide. CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2 (l) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) As CO2 is a gas it will escape as the reaction is taking place, therefore there will be a mass loss. Following from that I have decided to monitor this mass loss by weighing my components on a set of scales as the reaction takes place, the conical flask with the reactants will be constantly on the scales and I will be reading the mass of the display every 10 seconds. I will use 5 different concentrations of the acid. The strongest concentration will be 2 molar and the weakest will be 0.4 molar. The different concentrations will be obtained by adding a certain volume of water to the acid to dilute it this will reduce the concentration. Concentration of the acid / molar Volume of acid / cm� Volume of water / cm� 2.0 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 I predict that the higher concentration of the acid will have a much faster rate of reaction than the weaker solution, i.e. ...read more.

Middle

goes down proportionally to the decrease in concentration. Every time the concentration decreases by 0.4M, the total mass loss decreases by about twice that, by 0.8 (on average). Acid concentration/Molar Total Mass Loss/g Difference in mass loss/g 2.0 3.70 0.76 1.6 2.94 0.88 1.2 2.06 0.80 0.8 1.26 0.79 0.4 0.49 These results are not very accurate as some times the difference is bigger than 0.8g and some times it is smaller. However they all seem to be quite near 0.8g. You can see it illustrated on the graph as the distance between the lines at 500 seconds are about equal. Following from this we can say that if the difference between the concentrations is 0.8M, the difference between the total mass losses will be about 1.6g. 2.0M - 3.70g 3.70 - 2.06 =1.64g 1.2M - 2.06g At every concentration of the acid the rate of reaction is fast at first and then it slows down as the acid is diluted by water produced by the reaction of HCl and marble chips (the curved lines of the mass loss illustrate this). Concentration - 1.2M Mass Loss/100 sec - 1.18g Rate of reaction/sec = 1.18/100 = 0.018 Mass Loss/200sec - 1.72g Rate of reaction/sec = 1.72/200 = 0.0086 The rate of the reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the acid, i.e. doubling the concentration doubles the rate of the reaction When the concentration is 1.6M the mass loss after 2 minutes (120 sec) is 1.83g. When the concentration is 0.8M the mass loss after 2 minutes (120 sec) is 0.91g. 1.6/0.8 = 2 0.01525/0.007583 = 2.01 This illustrates that the concentration is directly proportional to the rate of the reaction. e.g. When the concentration is 2M the mass loss after 6 minutes (360 sec) is 3.57g. When the concentration is 1.2 M the mass loss after 6 minutes (360 sec) is 2.01g. 2/1.2 = 1.67 0.00991/0.00558 = 1.78 From my results I can conclude that the higher is the concentration of the acid, ...read more.

Conclusion

3.51 3.63 2.71 2.92 1.92 2.09 1.23 1.29 0.44 0.54 380 3.56 3.60 2.76 2.93 1.94 2.10 1.23 1.29 0.44 0.54 400 3.60 3.62 2.77 2.95 1.96 2.11 1.23 1.29 0.44 0.54 420 3.62 3.64 2.80 2.97 1.98 2.10 1.23 1.29 0.44 0.54 440 3.65 3.66 2.82 2.98 1.99 2.10 1.23 1.29 0.44 0.54 460 3.67 3.70 2.83 3.00 2.00 2.10 1.23 1.29 0.44 0.54 480 3.70 3.70 2.87 3.00 2.01 2.10 1.23 1.29 0.44 0.54 500 3.70 3.70 2.87 3.00 2.01 2.10 1.23 1.29 0.44 0.54 Average of 2 trials of mass loss at different acid concentrations Concentration/Molar Time/sec 2 1.6 1.2 0.80 0.40 10 0.30 0.13 0.07 0.10 0.07 20 0.64 0.27 0.23 0.18 0.09 30 0.92 0.51 0.31 0.28 0.14 40 1.16 0.71 0.48 0.38 0.16 50 1.37 0.90 0.63 0.47 0.18 60 1.58 1.06 0.75 0.57 0.21 70 1.76 1.23 0.87 0.64 0.24 80 1.93 1.37 0.97 0.71 0.26 90 2.07 1.50 1.09 0.77 0.29 100 2.23 1.61 1.18 0.82 0.31 110 2.34 1.73 1.25 0.88 0.33 120 2.46 1.83 1.32 0.91 0.36 140 2.66 2.02 1.45 0.98 0.38 160 2.82 2.12 1.56 1.03 0.40 180 2.95 2.26 1.65 1.09 0.43 200 3.06 2.37 1.72 1.12 0.45 220 3.16 2.46 1.78 1.16 0.47 240 3.24 2.55 1.82 1.18 0.48 260 3.31 2.60 1.88 1.19 0.49 280 3.37 2.66 1.92 1.22 0.49 300 3.43 2.70 1.94 1.24 0.49 320 3.48 2.75 1.96 1.24 0.49 340 3.51 2.78 1.99 1.26 0.49 360 3.57 2.82 2.01 1.26 0.49 380 3.58 2.85 2.02 1.26 0.49 400 3.61 2.86 2.04 1.26 0.49 420 3.63 2.89 2.04 1.26 0.49 440 3.66 2.90 2.05 1.26 0.49 460 3.69 2.92 2.05 1.26 0.49 480 3.70 2.94 2.06 1.26 0.49 500 3.70 2.94 2.06 1.26 0.49 Rates of reaction/sec Rate of Reaction Concentration of acid/M At 50 Sec At 100 sec At 200 sec 0.4 0.0036 0.0031 0.0023 0.8 0.0093 0.0082 0.0056 1.2 0.0126 0.0118 0.0086 1.6 0.0180 0.0161 0.0119 2 0.0274 0.0223 0.0153 Tamara Tsallagoava Set A1 1 ...read more.

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