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An Investigation To Find Out How The Concentration Of Hydrochloric Acid Affects The Rate Of Reaction With Calcium Carbonate.

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Introduction

Coursework - An Investigation To Find Out How The Concentration Of Hydrochloric Acid Affects The Rate Of Reaction With Calcium Carbonate Background Knowledge I am doing this experiment to find out whether the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction with calcium carbonate. In this experiment, when you add calcium carbonate (marble chips) to hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide is given off. EQUATION CaCo3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O +C02 Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide. Collision Theory Because I am investigating the rate of reaction, I looked up some important notes on this. From the 'Co-ordinated SCIENCE Chemistry' book, I learnt that the rate of reaction is combined with the ' Collision Theory'. This is when particles react when they collide, due to their kinetic energy. The higher the concentration of particle, hence more chance of a collision. Other input variables I am experimenting concentration on the rate of reaction. However, the other types of variables I could have used which would have affected the reaction are: i) The temperature, ii) the surface area of the calcium carbonate (marble chips) and the amount iii) using a catalyst and iv) the amount of pressure. Diagram This is a labeled diagram of my set up apparatus and the other equipment I'll be using. When I perform each of my experiments, they'll all be set out the same so it will be a fair test. Preliminary tests I did four preliminary tests. I did this so I could work out which measurements I should use. ...read more.

Middle

This is called a successful collision. Putting this theory into my actual experiments, I predict that 2m of hydrochloric acid will work twice as fast as 1m of acid because the amount of acid has been doubled. As I already know through previous lessons on this, If my diagram is accurate, it should look something like this: As the reaction reaches its highest point, its starts to curve. This is because the amount of chemical reactions has decreased because there are fewer ions. Hence, fewer collisions taking place. My Actual experiments I completed my experiments successfully and kept to my plan, safety precautions and fair test. I took re-takes of my test as I had said, and then I worked out the averages: I used 10 ml of hydrochloric acid, 1 gram or marble chips, and changed the amount of acid I used, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2 Molar: 1 molar experiment: Time (sec's) Test 1 (volume- CO2. Cm3) Test 2 (Volume- CO2. Cm3) Average (Volume- CO2. Cm3) 10 3 2 2.5 20 8 8 8 30 14 12 13 40 19 17 18 50 24 21 25 60 31 26 28.5 70 36 30 33 80 40 33 36.5 90 43 37 40 100 48 40 44 1.25 Molar experiment Time (sec's) Test 1 (volume- CO2. Cm3) Test 2 (Volume- CO2. Cm3) Average (Volume- CO2. Cm3) 10 4 5 4.5 20 14 10 12 30 20 15 17.5 40 28 20 24 50 35 26 30.5 60 42 31 36.5 70 46 36 41 80 49 40 44.5 90 55 44 49.5 100 58 48 53 1.5 Molar experiment Time (sec's) ...read more.

Conclusion

This was because I believe I would have been enough time for the reactions to work. Maybe if I had spent longer experimenting each one, I could have found out if any of my experiments actually stopped producing carbon dioxide. My results worked just as I'd put it in my prediction however. As I can see from the graph, the reactions started out very fast and gradually slowed down. My results are fairly reliable because I kept to my fair test and my plan. However, they may have been more reliable if I'd have used calcium carbonate in the form or powder, rather than chips. Even though there were a few liabilities in my experiments, I believe they were more reliable than not. Before I had started my experiments, I already had a rough picture in my mind of what type of results I was looking for. From chemistry books like 'Chemistry for you' I was able to find information on the collision theory and activation energy. I also found some information about these types of experiment's off www.bbc.co.uk. Overall, I am pleased with my results and I think most of them are fairly accurate. However, next time it would be a more accurate if I had had longer time to test each experiment. I spent 100 seconds on each test, but it would have been more accurate if I had spent about 150-200 seconds on each experiment. I could have also used powered calcium carbonate instead of marble chips. Marble chips come in all shapes and sizes so its not as fair a test. [AP1] 1 ...read more.

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