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An investigation to find out the factors affecting the rate of reaction of Hydrochloric acid with Sodium Thiosulphate.

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Introduction

An investigation to find out the factors affecting the rate of reaction of Hydrochloric acid with Sodium Thiosulphate. Aim: I am going to discover how the concentration influences the rate of reaction of Hydrochloric acid and Sodium Thiosulphate. There are four factors that influences the rates of reaction, they are: > Concentration(for gases it is pressure) > Temperature > Surface Area(Size of particles) The rate of reaction is owed to the collision theory. For a reaction to take place, particles must collide with great strength. If they do not collide with great strength, the reaction will not take place. Consequently, the rate of reaction is dependant on the collision of the particles. Method: 1. Set up the apparatus. 2. On a piece of paper, draw a dark cross. 3. Put 25ml of Sodium Thiosulphate. This is known as 1 Mole. 4. Place the beaker on top of the piece of paper, with the cross marked on it. 5. Check the temperature using a thermometer. 6. Add the Hydrochloric Acid to the Sodium Thiosulphate. As soon as the Hydrochloric acid touches the Sodium Thiosulphate start the time, using the stopwatch to see how long it takes until the cross is no longer visible. 7. Repeat this, however this time use 25ml of Sodium Thiosulphate and 5ml of water. 8. Keep repeating this; however change the concentration to 0.6M, 0.4M and 0.5M. ...read more.

Middle

Below is a picture of a beaker. The experiment shall be carried out three times. There is a reason for carrying out the experiment three times; this is to enable us to gain results that are more reliable. With these results, I can then take the average and show this on my graph. This will also help me to draw a better conclusion. As soon as I have my results, I shall work out the rate of reaction. I shall do this by using a formula: Rate= 1 Time taken for the cross to disappear For each result, the rate shall be calculated. This will help me to find out whether they match my prediction. I feel that as the concentration increases, the rate shall also increase. I must also make sure that the temperature is consistent throughout the experiment. Temperature is a vital factor as it can affect the rate of reaction. I must make sure that each time I carry the experiment out the temperature is the same. It is known that when temperature rises the particles gain energy, this is kinetic energy. This makes the particles move faster. This raises the possibility of particle collisions. Results Concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate(M) Time for cross to disappear(m & s) 1 2 3 Average (m & s) 0.2 1.56 2.0 1.58 1.71 0.4 1.04 1.06 1.06 1.05 0.6 3.9 42.63 44.84 30.46 0.8 30.26 28 31.76 30 1 21.33 19 23.46 21.26 Rate of reaction Concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate(M) ...read more.

Conclusion

For example, the measurements on the beaker may have been inaccurate, or the measurements on the thermometer may have been inaccurate. However, I could not help it if the readings were inaccurate. Looking at my results, it seems as if there was not an error. Things could be changed to make my results different. The cross underneath the beaker could have been darker. This would have made the time for the cross to disappear longer. I would have kept the cross the same for each experiment as it would need to be a fair test. The person who had the best vision could have carried out the experiment, as they would be able to judge when the cross disappeared more accurately. There are always ways in which to improve an experiment. I could have taken readings for 0.1M, 0.3M, 0.5M, 0.7M and 0.9M as well as 0.2M, 0.4M, 0.6M 0.8M and 1M. This would have given me better results as well as a better graph. To make my results even better I could have gone past 1M and gone up to 3M. To make sure the temperature was the same I could have used an electronic thermometer instead of a manual one. I could also have used a water bath. I could the have placed a white ceramic tile at the bottom with a cross on there to see when it disappeared. Overall, the experiment went very well and this is reflected by my results made and by the rate of reaction graph and concentration graph. ...read more.

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