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An Investigation to find the Effect of Distance from the Sea on the Number of Species

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Introduction

SKILL A An Investigation to find the Effect of Distance from the Sea on the Number of Species A preliminary study was carried out at Meadfoot beach, however, studies carried out at Dawlish Warren, the River Lemon and in the woodlands, enabled me to become familiar with skills I would need to carry out my investigation. At different sites, different sampling methods where learnt to enable me to chose the most suitable sampling method and statistical analysis for my chosen investigation. Sampling methods learnt included capture, mark, recapture, and random sampling. Finally experiments, where conducted at the River Lemon for me to become familiar with equipment's what they measure and their uses i.e. pH, velocity of water... My preliminary study which was carried out at Meadfoot beach enabled me to become familiar with beach profiling and some of the animal and plant species that I should be expected to find on the rocky shore when carrying out my chosen investigation. We carried out a transect line from the shore (supra-littoral zone) towards the sea (sublittoral zone) and placed a quadrat (50cm by 50cm) every metre to identify the species present in that qaudrat[Appendix 9]. The aim of the transect line (beach profiling) is to help describe the pattern of distribution of organisms according to the height above sea level, depending upon their ability to perform under various physiographic, physical, chemical and biological stresses imposed upon them. Beach profiling is also carried out to determine the depth of sea level at different parts of the beach as this abiotic factor play an very important role in the adaptation and survival of species [Appendix 7 +8]. The result of the transect illustrates the topography of the rocky shore and this data could be also be used alongside with the data of the species present to find the effect of distance and land slope on the species occupying that particular zone. ...read more.

Middle

Tides are the vertical movement of water in a periodical oscillation of the sea, due to the gravitational pull of the sun and moon. The tides are on a semi-diurnal cycle, so there are two high tides and two low tides each day. Due to the orbit of the moon, the tides also have a monthly cycle. This creates neap (very low) and spring (very high) tides. At the lower shore region the incessant wave action strikes strongly on the expose shore. This can easily cause the dislodgement of the organisms from rocks if they do not have proper attacking devices. However, this may also cause mechanical damage to the delicate tissue of organisms. Most of the organisms found at the middle and lower shore possess specialised structures to hold on the rocks or stones. For example, barnacles, limpets and snails all possess large and flattened feet, which can hold firmly on the rock surface by suction method. Tubeworm can do similar things bit by cementing methods. Other animals adapt by hiding in crevices or among seaweed (algae) holdfasts. (11) The action of powerful waves can dislodge many species so those that live on the middle shore (where wave action is at its most powerful) must be adapted to survive very rough conditions. Wave action also increases the humidity of an area, and so can help to reduce desiccation, therefore, photosynthesis of plant species can occur as aquatic plants i.e. seaweed photosynthesise is water. Tidal Movement Every 12 hours the level of the sea rises at high tide than falls again at low tide, the tides are bought about by the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon. There are two high tides and two low tides each day. So the species at the middle and lower shore always experience exposure and submergence. The problem caused by submergence includes desiccation, high temperature, and salinity fluctuation of gaseous exchange as well as different range of illumination. ...read more.

Conclusion

Length: To 60mm Habitat : On rocks (6) Topshell:-With its habit of sitting on the rocks of the middle shore when the tide is out the topshell can give the appearance of being extremely abundant. Although, when young the tip of the shell may be quite angular, with age it wears away, becoming more rounded and revealing the shiny 'mother-of-peal' beneath. Colour : Greyish with purple streaks Height : To 3omm Habitat : On rocks, middle shore (6) Grey Top Shells Colour : Pale grey with darker stripes Height: To 15mm Habitat: Middle shore down, under stones when the tide is out. (6) Periwinkle Colour : Dark grey to black, sometimes reddish Height: To 30mm Habitat: Middle shore down. (6) Why chose that topic, method and statistical analysis? I have chosen the following topic ' There is no difference in the number of species found and distance from the sea' because while conducting my pilot survey I found it interesting how species are adapted differently to be able to survive in different zones. I wanted to study in more depth the relationship between organisms and the biotic and abiotic factors, my chosen topic allows me to do this. I chose to carry out a transect line because it describe the pattern of distribution of organisms according to the height above sea level, depending upon their ability to perform under various physiographic, physical, chemical and biological stresses imposed upon them. Beach profiling is also carried out to determine the depth of sea level at different parts of the beach. I decided to place the quadrat every metre so I can get a true and accurate representation of the species living in each zone. I chose Chi-Squared (X�) method to analysis my data because this statistical method shows the difference in the number of things in different areas. (How many times a thing (specie) has occurred. Shows the significant difference). Using Chi-squared you calculate a critical value and using this value you can see if your result is 95%+ confidence. ...read more.

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