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An Investigation to Measure the Rates of Reaction between Calcium Carbonate (Marble Chips) And Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

An Investigation to Measure the Rates of Reaction between Calcium Carbonate (Marble Chips And Hydrochloric Acid Introduction The idea of this experiment is show how the concentration of acid changes the speed of a reaction. The equation for this experiment is: Calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid = calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide For any experiment there are four variables that can vary the speeds of an experiment. The four variables are: 1. Temperature - the higher the temperature, the quicker the reaction will take place. 2. Concentration - the higher the concentration, the quicker the experiment. 3. Catalyst - this is one variable which is not always available. This is one of those experiments. 4. Surface area - the larger the surface area, the quicker the experiment. Out of these variables the one I have chosen to be investigated the concentration as it's is the easiest one to control and keep fair. Temperature is almost impossible to keep the experiment fair, as soon as the solution is taken off the Bunsen burner the temperature begins to descend. A catalyst cannot be used as there is in fact no catalyst for the reaction calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. The final variable which could not use is the surface area; it would be next to impossible to calculate what the surface area was on each piece of calcium carbonate. For those reasons using concentration as has already been stated it is an easier variable to control and is also safer. Hence throughout the entire investigation only going the concentration of the acid will ever be change, everything else will remain constant; for example the marble chips (calcium carbonate) ...read more.

Middle

Surface Area When there is a small surface area there are always going to be particles which cannot react with anything until the particles around it have been reacted. In the diagram bellow, the first beaker has two particles which cannot be reached; this is because of the small surface area. However in the second beaker there is a larger surface area and so the two particles are able to react at the same time as the others. Prediction The prediction to this experiment is that the stronger the concentration of the acid the quicker the carbon dioxide will be given off. The way in which this prediction is made is by looking at the molecules of both the calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. As you can see in the diagrams below there are two concentrations of acid. In the first beaker there are four particles of hydrochloric acid, if the concentration of the acid is doubled there are double the amount of particles. Because there are double the quantity of particles there will be twice as many chances to for the hydrochloric acid to collide into the calcium carbonate. When hydrochloric acid particles collide with calcium carbonate particles with enough energy a reaction takes place. Another prediction for this experiment is that the larger the surface area the faster the reaction. As you can see in this diagram with the smaller surface area which is in the first beaker, there are two particles (red) which cannot react with anything until the other particles around them have reacted. However in the second beaker the two particles are able to react with the hydrochloric acid as there is a larger surface area. ...read more.

Conclusion

One of the days there was a fault in a piece of the equipment. There may have also been a slight change in the temperature although this would have only been by 1�C at the most. Conclusion In conclusion to this experiment it has been discovered that the stronger concentration has the fastest reaction time therefore saying that concentrations do affect the way in which chemicals react. Looking at 1M graph it shows that it took 131 seconds of the reaction to release 100cm� of carbon dioxide, this is compared to the 4M graph which shows it only took 28 seconds for the same amount of carbon dioxide to be released making it over four times faster than 1M. This is also shown on the rate graph. Looking at the graphs there is a pattern in the fact that 4M reacts twice as fast as 2M and four times faster then the 1M. This shows that as the concentration is doubled the time taken for the reaction is doubled. In all of my graphs, the line of best fit is in the place where I believe is where it is closest to the most points and therefore being in the most accurate place. The graphs have proved that my predictions were correct and that the more concentrated the hydrochloric acid is the faster the reaction time, the rate graph backs these up further. Although I didn't do an experiment on the surface area it is clear from my research that the larger surface areas will also increase the speed of the reaction. This is because when there is a larger surface area there are more of the particles in contact with the hydrochloric acid then the smaller surface area. Because of this the hydrochloric acid can hit more of the particles. ?? ?? ?? ?? Chris Morris 11G ...read more.

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