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An Investigation To Observe The Effects Of Concentration On Rate Of Chemical Reaction.

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Introduction

An Investigation To Observe The Effects Of Concentration On Rate Of Chemical Reaction Introduction This is an experiment that will measure the effect of concentration in rate of a chemical reaction. Through the preliminary enquiry I have found that there are four main factors that affect rate of reaction: - * Temperature * Concentration * Surface Area * Catalysts The factor that is going to be investigated through this experiment will be concentration. To make this a fair test all the other 3 factors will have to be constants, if there is more than one variable the results will not be accurate. This experiment is based around the 'collision theory'. The Collision Theory The collision theory basically states that for a reaction to occur particles must collide. They must also collide hard enough to start a reaction. So this means that if any one of the above four factors is increased then this should increase collisions. For example if we increase temperature in a reaction then we give the particles more kinetic energy, if the particles have more energy they will move faster and collide more often thus increasing the rate of the reaction. In this investigation the reaction that will be used is the reaction of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) ...read more.

Middle

Also safety precautions should be taken when around acidic chemicals, safety goggles should be worn. Prediction I predict that the higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the faster the reaction will take place. I believe this because if the concentration of hydrochloric acid molecules is great the there will be a greater chance of collision between a hydrochloric acid molecule and a calcium carbonate molecule, causing a greater rate of reaction. I also believe that if the concentration of hydrochloric acid is doubled, the amount of carbon dioxide produced in 20 seconds will also be doubled. This is because there will be twice as many hydrochloric acid molecules the chance of a collision will be twice as big. I also predict that the reaction will be quick at first and then slow down as the reactants get used, this is because as there becomes fewer reactants the chance of a collision will reduce thus causing the reaction to slow down. I think that this will produce a graph as shown below: Results Ratio water: acid Test 1 Amount of CO2 Produced Test 2 Amount of CO2 Produced Test 3 Amount of CO2 Produced Test 4 Amount of CO2 Produced cm3 Average Result 10 : 0 0 0 0 0 0.00 9: 1 1 3 2 2 2.00 8: 2 4 5 8 6 5.75 7: 3 9 10 ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation I believe that the results and measurements obtained from this experiment were sufficient to allow me to draw an effective conclusion. Although I do not believe that the measurements were sufficiently accurate, this is due to limited equipment and uncontrollable atmospheres, such as the air pressure and room temperature. The experiments were not all conducted on the same day, so it is extremely likely that the values for things such as room temperature were different, and this would have a direct effect on the results. There was one anomaly that stood out, this was the reading from test 1 that is highlighted in the table and circled on the graph. This anomaly could be due to the inconsistency in the delay from when the hydrochloric acid is poured into the flask and the bung being placed into the top of the flask. This could have a fairly big effect on the results because most gas is produced at the start of the reaction. Measuring the mass of the solution instead of collecting the gas could perhaps eliminate this problem. Although the results may not have been extremely reliable, they were fairly consistent as we can see from the graphs. The graphs certainly follow a positive trend. Other investigations that could be done following on from this one would be investigating the other factors that affect rate of reaction, such as temperature, surface area and catalyst. ...read more.

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