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An Investigation to see How the Concentration of Hydrochloric acid affects the Rate of Reaction with Calcium Carbonate

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Introduction

An Investigation to see How the Concentration of Hydrochloric acid affects the Rate of Reaction with Calcium Carbonate I am going to investigate how concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and indigestion tablets which contain mainly calcium carbonate. From my background knowledge from class work and books, (see references) I have found out that if you increase the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the rate of reaction will increase and the time of the reaction will decrease. The concentration is dependant on the proportions of hydrochloric acid and water in the solution. The stronger the hydrochloric acid is, the higher the concentration is. I know from my research that other things can affect the rate of reaction, for example: Temperature of acid- the higher the temperature of the acid is, the more energy the particles have to move around, therefore there are more collisions and so a faster rate of reaction. There is a certain amount of energy needed for the particles to react which is called the activation energy, so when the temperature of the solution is higher, it gives more particles sufficient energy so they move faster to react when they collide more. Size of the particles- when the reactant is a solid then it can be broken down into smaller pieces or into a powder giving it different surface areas. The smaller the pieces, the bigger the surface area is and therefore there is more area for the acid to react with it, and so there is more chance of the particles colliding, so the rate of reaction will increase. Catalysts- this weakens the bonds in the reacting molecules so it seems to lower the activation energy for the reaction. This means that there can be many more successful collisions because particles will have more energy than the activation energy, and so the reaction will be faster. ...read more.

Middle

I will reapeat the anomalous results first. The more repeats I do, the more reliable my results will be. Safety I will use 2M and 4M hydrochloric acid which both have IRRITANT warnings so I will be careful using them and try not to get them on my hands or in my eyes. I will use goggles to protect my eyes. Acid Vol/cm� Water Vol/cm� Concentration M Time to collect 40cm of gas 1st 2nd Rate of reaction Cm�/s 1st 2nd 25.0 (2M) 25.0 1.0 139 145 0.29 0.28 35.0 (2M) 15.0 1.4 109 106 0.37 0.38 45.0 (2M) 5.0 1.8 88 85 0.45 0.47 27.5 (4M) 22.5 2.2 75 - 0.53 - 32.5 (4M) 17.5 2.6 66 63 0.61 0.63 37.5 (4M) 12.5 3.0 58 - 0.69 - 42.5 (4M) 7.5 3.4 55 51 0.73 0.78 47.5 (4M) 2.5 3.8 55 59 0.73 0.68 Results I have plotted my results on a graph to show the relationship between the concentration of the acid to the rate of reaction. I have circled the results which I think are anomalous. An anomalous result is one which is very different to the other results and does not join with the pattern of the graph and is not near the line of best fit. From my results and graph, I can see that as the concentration increases, the rate of reaction increases. This conclusion supports my prediction well because my results show that the higher the concentration, the quicker the reaction is because there are more particles to react with each other, and so there is more chance for them to collide and therefore the reaction is faster, which is what I originally assumed in my prediction. My graph shows it is directly proportional, because if I take the concentration of 1.5M of hydrochloric acid, and find the rate of reaction using my graph, it shows that the rate of reaction is 0.36 cm�/s, and using the graph if I double the concentration to 3M, the rate ...read more.

Conclusion

I would find out why these results were anomalous because even though I did reapeats, I still got anomalous results and so I would like to find out why this happened. I would like to investigate the rate of reaction with more concentrations in order to see what happens after 3.8M acid to see if it was still directly proportional or if the graph leveled off. Other extra investigations I would do would include using different types of acid for instance nitric acid or sulphuric acid and see if they changed the reaction at all. I would also try and use different types of indigestion tablets, because the ones I used contained ginger which I have researched about to find that it is used for digestion, soothing aches and pains in muscles and improves circulation problems, so I would like to investigate if this has a different effect on the rate of the reaction or not. I put an indigestion tablet into 1M of acid concentration and measured the temperature before and after the reaction for one minute to see if the reaction was exothermic or endothermic, but there was no change in temperature, so I would like to see what effect an exothermic or endothermic reaction would have on the experiment. Overall I think my results are reliable because the repeats are all very close to eachother, the biggest gap between my repeats is the 1.0M concentration which had a time difference of 6 seconds, but the others which I had time to repeat are all around 3 seconds apart. If I had more time I would do much more repeats to make my results more reliable. The accuracy of my results are quite good because they are all very close to the line of best fit. I would like to do more experiments and repeats to make sure my line of best fit is accurate and in the correct place. Apart from these I think my investigation was successful. Azadeh Azima Chemistry Coursework February 2003 1 ...read more.

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