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An investigation to see if concentration influences the rate of reaction between dilute Hydrochloric acid and marble chips.

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Introduction

An investigation to see if concentration influences the rate of reaction between dilute Hydrochloric acid and marble chips Plan I already know that acid rain is just water which is acidic and that limestone is called calcium carbonate. The rain becomes acidic because it dissolves gases like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, which are formed when fossil fuels burn. I also know that, both natural vegetation and crops are affected by acid rain. The roots are damaged by acidic rainfall, causing the growth of the plant to be stunted, or even in its death. Nutrients present in the soil are destroyed by the acidity. Useful micro organisms, which release nutrients from decaying organic matter, into the soil, are killed off, resulting in less nutrients being available for the plants. Lakes are also becoming more acid which in time will kill fish and other sea creatures. Even limestone buildings, bridges and other structures are affected. In cities the paint on cars fades due to the effects of acid rain. Below is the reaction when dilute nitric acid reacts with marble chips: Equation CaCO3 (s) + 2HNO3 (aq) Ca(NO3)2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) In this coursework I will be investigating how the different concentrations of nitric acid react with marble chips. To do this, I will measure the volume of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced with a gas syringe. I will collect 50 cm3 of carbon dioxide each time. I will repeat this experiment three times using the same equipment and conditions so that the results are accurate by fair testing. I will plot the results on to a graph. Equipment: 1. Conical flask: - 250cm3 2. Gas siring: - To measure the 50 cm3 of CO2 produced 3. Nitric acid: - 2M 4. Marble chips: - medium size 5. Bung: - To fit on top of the conical flask so it traps the CO2 6. ...read more.

Middle

What is the dependent variable? The dependent variable, which I will investigate, will be the time it takes to produce 50.0 cm3 of carbon dioxide. However, this relies upon the different concentrations of the Nitric Acid. How will I keep everything accurate? To gain the best results I can, I will have to keep everything within the experiment accurate as possible. To do this I will: - I will start the timer as soon as the bung is back in the flask. - As I stated before, I will also always make sure the gas syringe at starts at 0cm3. We found that 1M acid produced a reasonable rate of reaction with medium size chips. I intend to use a range of concentrations from 0.5M to 2M. I will use five different concentrations of Nitric acid, as this will enable me to produce a graph with a reasonable set of points. Therefore, I will then be able to analysis my results to see if my prediction is correct. Prediction I predict that as I increase the concentration of Nitric acid i.e. 1.0M - 1.5M the rate of reaction will also increase so to collect 50cm3 of carbon dioxide will be in a shorter period of time. This is because there are more acid particles in a higher concentration to react with the marble chips; hence more collisions are likely to occur. Lastly I also predict that if I double the concentration of Nitric acid then the rate of reaction will double and the time taken to produce carbon dioxide will be halved. This is because higher acid concentration means more particles in the same volume and more frequent collisions, or double the amount of collisions. Therefore, the time taken will be quicker and halved. I can explain this through the collision theory shown below: 1 2 As you can see, shown above in Box 1 there are 6 acid particles and 2.0 grams of marble chips. ...read more.

Conclusion

The problem could have been my eyesight or my reaction time, which could have altered the results of the experiments. To solve this problem, I could have used some automatic method like the light gate that I used for measuring speed. Another problem I had while performing the experiment was controlling the surface area of the marble chips. They were not exactly the same, which meant that the experiment did not give the same results. Also the acid was constantly reacting with the marble chips and dissolving parts off them, which meant that the surface area had change over time. To solve this problem I could have used powered calcium carbonate instead, therefore the size of the chips, would be relatively the same. However, I did not use this because the acid would have reacted too fast with the powdered calcium carbonate and produced carbon dioxide at a very fast rate, pushing the gas syringe out totally. Therefore, I would not have been able to plot a graph. While conducting the experiment I noticed the conical flask warmed up when the nitric acid and marble chips were reacting. I know that this is known as an exothermic reaction, where the reactants, in this case acid and marble chips, react together to give off heat so the conical flask warms up. To control this I used a water bath. Therefore, this keeps the temperature constant so that the particles have the same energy through out the experiments. To make sure that the temperature stays constant, I used a thermometer. However, I could have also measured the temperature at the beginning and at the end of the experiments, to make sure that they were the same. Therefore, the results would be more accurate and reliable. As a conclusion, if I were to do the experiment again I would use a bigger range of concentrations to make the results more accurate and to make the graphs more reliable. Amy Amin 11. Chemistry coursework - Rate of reaction ...read more.

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