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An Investigation to show how concentration changes the speed of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

An Investigation to show how concentration changes the speed of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Planning 1: The aim of this investigation is to find out the effect of acid concentration in the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. The rate of a chemical reaction is a measure of how fast the reaction takes place. A high concentration of hydrochloric acid could mean a fast reaction whereas as a low concentration could mean a slow long reaction. I will be testing different concentrations of acid reacting with magnesium in two separate experiments, which will hopefully prove this initial prediction. During my science lesson I have learnt the following information that has enabled me to plan my investigation. Using my science book as evidence, I feel that as I continue to add water to the hydrochloric acid, its concentration decreases. Therefore the less acid molecules there are the smaller the chance of them colliding with the solid magnesium ribbon. This means decreasing the concentration of hydrochloric acid slows down the rate of the reaction between the magnesium ribbon and hydrochloric acid. The diagram shows how fast acid molecules are colliding in a concentration of 50cm3 hydrochloric acid. There are less collisions with the magnesium ribbon (mg) in a concentration of 40cm3 acid and 10cm3 water than a concentration of 50cm3 acid and 0cm3 water. ...read more.

Middle

* Repeat the experiment with weaker acid. (45ml HCL, 5ml H20), (40ml HCL, 10ml H2O) and so on............... * Repeat entire experiment twice. Diagram: Observation: Results table of first experiment: Amount of hydrochloric acid. Amount of water. How much time taken for the magnesium to disappear. 50cm3 0cm3 51.97 secs 45cm3 5cm3 1 min 50.31 secs 40cm3 10cm3 2 min 9.78 secs 35cm3 15cm3 2 min 27.37 secs 30cm3 20cm3 3 min 30.03 secs Repeat: Amount of hydrochloric acid. Amount of water. How much time taken for the magnesium to disappear. 50cm3 0cm3 53.07 secs 45cm3 5cm3 1 min 59.76 secs 40cm3 10cm3 2 min 15.36 secs 35cm3 15cm3 2 min 58.67 secs 30cm3 20cm3 3 min 42.03 secs Average: Amount of hydrochloric acid. Amount of water. How much time taken for the magnesium to disappear. 50cm3 0cm3 52.52 secs 45cm3 5cm3 1 min 55 secs 40cm3 10cm3 2 min 12.57 secs 35cm3 15cm3 2 min 43.02 secs 30cm3 20cm3 3 min 36.03 secs Results table for second experiment: Amount of hydrochloric acid. Amount of water. How much time taken for the gas to replace the liquid in the test tube. 50cm3 0cm3 32.87 secs 45cm3 5cm3 1 min 58.75 secs 40cm3 10cm3 3 min 1.25 secs 35cm3 15cm3 3 min 43.84 secs 30cm3 20cm3 4 min 30.01secs Repeat: Amount of hydrochloric acid. Amount of water. ...read more.

Conclusion

I did not have an aid from a mass balance, which could have caused a difference; measuring the magnesium ribbon also had an effect, which was that the surface area of it could have been larger or smaller than the previous one. If the magnesium consists of a large surface area the hydrochloric acid would have more area to attack it and break it down. If not then the process would take longer because the hydrochloric acid has less room to break down the (mg) ribbon. Fourthly, the magnesium given to us was very old, because of this erosion had occurred causing the shine to wear off. Instead of the shine the corrosion covered the magnesium, which could have had an effect when the acid was reacting with the magnesium. To cure this problem I would need the aid of an emery cloth, this would get rid of all the corrosion on the magnesium ribbon and make it shiny once more. Another way I could prove my prediction was through my follow up experiment, this is where you place the beaker with the correct concentration of hydrochloric acid, place the magnesium in; but before doing so record the weight and once finished record again. The difference will show that the mass decreases, which tells us that the reaction has, took place. Diagram: Lastly, to further my investigation I could repeat the experiment more times for much more accuracy. I could also test if the temperature of the hydrochloric acid affects the rate of reaction. ...read more.

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