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# An investigation to show the correlation between the number of different species found, and the B.M.W.P score of the environment.

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Introduction

Matthew Stone Introduction For an explanation on BMWP, refer to appendix 1. For background information on Osmington Bay, refer to appendix 2 Plan Hypothesis "The BMWP score will increase with the number of species found." This is because the larger the number of species, the more BMWP score there will be for the sample. With correlation to the environment, species that have a higher affinity for oxygen have a higher BMWP score. Therefore, if there is only one species in a riffle (a highly aerated and fast flowing part of the river, meaning high amounts of oxygen dissolved and low amounts of organic pollution), the BMWP score of the area will be higher than that of a pool (stagnant, little aeration, and large amounts of organic pollution (eutrification of the organic pollution causes low oxygen content)) with many species: Environment BMWP Score High aeration, high number of species High High aeration, few number of species Medium Low aeration, large number of species Medium Low aeration, few number of species Low Statistical Support Because I am trying to show the relationship between to different pieces of data, I will use the Spearman's Rank Co-efficient. Statistically, this will show whether the number of species found is significantly correlated to the BMWP score. I will therefore need to collect over 12 sets of data to make statistically analysing the data productive. ...read more.

Middle

* Wear appropriate clothing to be safe in river (stay dry, wont slip over on the bed), on road (so vehicles can see you). Results site number 1.1 1.2 Riffle/Pool Riffle Pool Description Bottom mill Width (M) 3.45 4.1 Depth Spacing (M) 0.86 1.03 depth1 (M) 0.16 0.15 depth2 (M) 0.17 0.21 depth3 (M) 0.15 0.19 dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 6.50 6.4 Velocity (M per Sec) 0.46 0.31 pH 7.50 7.5 Temp (�C) 10.2 10.2 Average sediment size (cm) 7.56 1.18 Number of species 6 5 BMWP Score 29.5 20 site number 2.1 2.2 Riffle/Pool Riffle Pool Description Width (M) 9.570 3.663 Depth Spacing (M) 2.390 0.910 depth1 (M) 0.280 0.230 depth2 (M) 0.110 0.250 depth3 (M) 0.130 0.210 dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 5.600 6.200 Velocity (M per Sec) 0.348 0.170 pH 7.500 7.500 Temp (�C) 10.500 10.220 Average sediment size (cm) 3.62 2.08 Number of Species 6 3 BMWP Score 24.5 18.5 site number 3.1 3.2 Riffle/Pool Riffle Pool Description Width (M) 5.50 5.30 Depth Spacing (M) 1.38 1.33 depth1 (M) 0.08 0.24 depth2 (M) 0.19 0.21 depth3 (M) 0.08 0.14 dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 4.80 4.40 Velocity (M per Sec) 0.53 0.14 pH 7.50 7.50 Temp (�C) 10.20 10.50 Average sediment size (cm) 6.36 9.00 Number of species 4 8 BMWP Score 15 25 site number 4.1 4.2 Riffle/Pool Riffle Pool Description Width (M) 5.42 5.42 Depth Spacing (M) 1.36 1.36 depth1 (M) ...read more.

Conclusion

Overall I have found many more species in the pools than in the riffles. I am convinced this is because pools have more sediment to kick up, so therefore I am more likely to pick up species. I have only been able to collect up to 6 species at a time. I cannot have collected all species that were present in the river, so the BMWP score that I have collected cannot be true. This makes my results extremely unreliable. The conditions of the river are not true for other rivers; in that there seems to be little diversity present. Although I found this on my pilot experiment, it was impossible to select another river to study to compare my results to. Limitations of methods Due to the tentative nature of this small experiment, there are several large errors that could occur with methods used. For example: kick sampling, as a method is very inaccurate. It is very hard to replicate same results each time such as the same number of kicks, kicking up the same amount of sediment each time, kicking with the same strength each time, kicking all sediment into the sweep net etc. The method used to calculate the velocity is very inaccurate. The red dye travelling the river was only "judged" to have crossed the meter rule. It was also impossible to place the dye in the same part of the river, other methods such as dropping an orange in the river along a meter rule proved no more accurate. Matthew Stone Page 12 of 12 ...read more.

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