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Analyse and determine whether or not the concentration of glucose effects the time for potassium manganate (IIV) to turn colourless / clear.

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Introduction

Plan In the following investigation I hope to design and carry out a safe procedure, that will provide me with sufficient information that i will be able to analyse and determine whether or not the concentration of glucose effects the time for potassium manganate (IIV) to turn colourless / clear. The experiment will be Safe = we will make sure there are no obstructions nearby, the experiment is designed so that it can be carried out from ground level. When we are carrying out the experiment all members of the group will wear safety glasses incase of spillage's or splashes. All members of the group do not have long hair but if they were to have long hair it would be tied back, all ties worn wiliest doing the experiment will be removed or securely tucked into the persons shirt. * Fair test = instruments used in the experiment will all be thoroughly cleaned, washed and dried to ensure that there is no chemicals left on them which could effect the accuracy of our results. We will try to carry out the experiment on the same day to ensure that there is no major fluctuations in the temperature of the room which could effect the accuracy of our experiment. * Accuracy = all measurements of liquids will be measured from the bottom of the meniscus and accurate to 0.5cm� , the mixture of all liquids in the experiment is not in our control, but we have been ensured that it will be done as accurately as possible. To try and eliminate any chance of anomalous results each concentration level will be repeated 3 times, we will change the concentration of glucose increasing it by 5cm� each time beginning with 5cm�, 10cm�, 15cm�, 20cm�, 25cm� and 30cm�. However the concentration of potassium will remain at 5cm� every time, to ensure that the test is as fair as possible the mixture of liquids will be made up to a total volume of 40cm� each time using water. ...read more.

Middle

Secondary information Collision theory Collision theory explains how chemical reactions occur and why rates of reaction differ. For a reaction to occur, particles must collide. If the collision causes a chemical change it is referred to as a fruitful collision. Collision theory, the theory that explains how chemical reactions take place and why rates of reaction alter. For a reaction to occur the reactant particles must collide. Only a certain fraction of the total collisions cause chemical change; these are called fruitful collisions. The fruitful collisions have sufficient energy (activation energy) at the moment of impact to break the existing bonds and form new bonds, resulting in the products of the reaction. Increasing the concentration of the reactants and raising the temperature bring about more collisions and therefore more fruitful collisions, increasing the rate of reaction. When a catalyst undergoes collision with the reactant molecules, less energy is required for the chemical change to take place, and hence more collisions have sufficient energy for reaction to occur. The reaction rate therefore increases. Reaction In chemistry, the coming together of two or more atoms, ions, or molecules with the result that a chemical change takes place; that is, a change that occurs when two or more substances interact with each other, resulting in the production of different substances with different chemical compositions. The nature of the reaction is portrayed by a chemical equation. Chemical equations show the reactants and products of a chemical reaction by using chemical symbols and formulae. State symbols and the energy symbol (H) can be used to show whether reactants and products are solids, liquids, or gases, and whether energy has been released or absorbed during the reaction. In addition reactions two or more compounds react together to form one compound. Energy of reaction Energy released or absorbed during a chemical reaction is also called heat of reaction. In a chemical reaction, the energy stored in the reacting molecules is rarely the same as that stored in the product molecules. ...read more.

Conclusion

to react with the glucose to turn colourless decreases. Evaluation From designing and carrying out these experiments I have noticed areas which can be improved. These improvements will make the experiment more accurate and will therefore make my final conclusion more accurate. These improvements are as follows :- * Make measurements of all liquids as accurate as possible, this may involve less human input to the measurements as human error is one of the largest factors in the less accuracy of measurements, * Use a more accurate method of determining whether or not the reaction has finished, instead of human judgement, * Use a more accurate method of timing the reaction, e.g. stop watch, this is because the stop clock we used was only accurate to 1 second, * Use a fairer method of combining the to liquids, we noticed as we poured the potassium manganate (IIV) our into the beaker, that we did not pour them in from the same height, this means that some solutions had more potential energy which could then be converted into kinetic energy, this could result in one solution colliding quicker, and therefore reacting quicker, * Use a more accurate method of measuring the temperature of the liquids and the room. This is because whilst repeating the experiment, we noticed that when we examined the results of the experiment on the colder day, the experiment took longer than it did on the hotter day. This is because on the hotter day the solutions had more energy already in them, this was in them in the form of heat, this then means that the time taken for them to reach their activation energy was less resulting in a quicker reaction. If I was to repeat this experiment I would not only try and make it more accurate by using more accurate equipment, but I would also take more repeat readings and take readings at smaller intervals. By doing this, the results would give me more accurate information to analyse and conclude. Chemistry. Investigating the reaction between potassium manganate (IIV) & glucose By Hywel Morse ...read more.

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