• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

Extracts from this document...


Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria- 750 words Essay Introduction In the past several decades or so, antibiotics use has been crucial in the battle against infectious sickness caused bacteria and other microorganisms. Many diseases that once killed people can now be now treated effectively with antibiotics. Antibiotics caused a dramatic rise in the average life expectancy. However, disease-causing microbes that have become resistant to antibiotic drugs are an increasing public health problem. Wound infections, tuberculosis, septicemia and childhood ear infections are some of the few diseases that have become hard to treat with antibiotics. One part of the problem is those bacteria and other microorganisms that cause infections developing several ways to resist antibiotics. Vaccines are also very helpful in the processes because they very effective. Vaccines are the reason small pox has been extinct and only two of them are kept: one in USA and one in Russia. Some organisms are resistant to all antibiotics and can be only treated with experimental or potentially toxic drugs. ...read more.


Bacteria do this by changing the permeability of their membranes or by reducing the number of channels available for drugs to diffuse through * Changing the targets- Many antibiotics work by sticking to their target and preventing it from interacting with other molecules inside the cell. Some bacteria respond by changing the structure of the target (or even replacing it within another molecule altogether) so that the antibiotic can no longer recognize it or bind to it. * Destroying the antibiotics- Rather than simply pushing the antibiotics aside or setting up molecular blockades, some bacteria survive by destroying their enemy directly. For example, some kinds of bacteria produce enzymes called beta-lactamases that chew up penicillin. * Mutating Antibiotic-Method of resistance Chloramphenicol-reduce uptake into cell Tetracycline- active efflux from the cell B-lactams, Erythromycin, Lincomycin- eliminates or reduces binding of antibiotic to cell target B-lactams, Aminoglycosides, Chloramphenicol- enzymatic cleavage or modification to inactivate antibiotic molecule Sulfonamides, Trimethoprim- metabolic bypass of inhibited reaction overproduction of antibiotic target (titration) ...read more.


All these unnecessary prescriptions are bad for your health because as Associate Professor Collignon Says "Antibiotic resistance is an inevitable consequence of [antibiotic] use, the more you use them the more resistance you will get." There so many challenge to overcome before we can cure the resistant bacteria as it is evolving and learning more and more on how to defend it self. Conclusion In conclusion bacteria is evolving therefore learning how to fight against our antibiotics. As they generations pass we will also know how to fight the evolved forms of the bacteria as we learned already in the past how to fight bacteria and other microorganisms. And this cycle will continue for ever until a one of the microorganism or we die. And we also find new bacterial diseases which we have no antibiotic for and some virus is also incurable or we have found no cure. But all is well and due to all the help of antibotics an cures peoples life span has increased by 20% from the 19th century. Number of words: 810 Sources http://www.abc.net.au/science/slab/antibiotics/resistance.htm http://www.cnbc.com/id/42644703 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibiotic_resistance http://www.enotes.com/history-fact-finder/medicine-disease/when-were-antibiotics-invented http://www.neli.org.uk/arfaqs.nsf/c142977c99209f3680256c91003fdf4a/48ec067b5c3fca8780256caa004b3806?OpenDocument http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101005104448.htm http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/am/v2/n3/antibiotic-resistance-of-bacteria http://thescienceofacne.com/how-do-bacteria-become-resistant-to-antibiotics/ ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Variation and Inheritance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

This is a well structured and well written report.
1. The use of subheadings is good.
2. The use of examples is good.
3. The sources of information need to be referenced.

Marked by teacher Luke Smithen 13/08/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Variation and Inheritance essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Cloning. Should it be banned? I will explain all the different types of cloning ...

    the making of clones unnaturally that people do not agree with as cloning can happen naturally, this is called human reproductive cloning that naturally occurs and forms twin's. In large and complex animals all the unspecialized cells have been used up and this is why cloning in animals is very uncommon.

  2. Peer reviewed

    Why is sexual reproduction so common in nature?

    5 star(s)

    The general consensus amongst evolutionary biologists is that there are two relatively convincing, modern day theories. Both of these theories are concerned with a deterministic advantage to sex and recombination through the production of genetically variable offspring. This increases efficiency of selection, and hence accelerates the increase in mean fitness.

  1. Peer reviewed

    Ganetics, Inheritance and Cells.

    4 star(s)

    dominant or recessive The importance of his work wasn't realised until after his death His experiments where repeated and the invention of the microscope showed the structures that we know as chromosomes and genes Mendal did not know about chromosomes, genes and DNA but now we know 1.

  2. Peer reviewed

    The structure of nucleic acid chains (or DNA).

    4 star(s)

    This unwinding is accomplished by an enzyme known as DNA helicase. This unwound section appears under electron microscopes as a "bubble" and is thus known as a replication bubble. As the two DNA strands separate ("unzip") and the bases are exposed, the enzyme DNA polymerase moves into position at the point where synthesis will begin.

  1. GeneticallyModified Organisms can only be harmful to humans

    It has been reported that many companies are supporting this research because they can invest more money and receive an increase in profits. The farmers are going to however buy more expensive GM seeds in order to grow their crop a year later, which can have detrimental effects on their

  2. The causes and consequences of variation

    However, many mutations of this type are recessive to normal alleles, a recessive mutant allele awaits replication in the gene pool over many generations before chance brings recessive alleles together, so they are expressed. Gene mutations can also be caused by what's known as base pair substitution.

  1. What is population genetics and how is it put to practical use?

    on parameters, and the assumptions used are that the organisms are diploid, reproduce through sex, mate randomly with other individuals in the population (vital to retain the frequencies as most likely to be a heterozygote and encounter one and produce one hence retaining the variation), the population is infinitely large,

  2. Pressure groups are important in the debate about Genetic modification. How would you define ...

    this march the government reacted by announcing plans for a Ministry of Rural Affairs which would publish a white paper investigating all aspects of rural life and the effects of its policies upon the environment. Pressure groups also promote their interests is by participating in local politics between elections.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work