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Apple pulp investigation.

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Introduction

10/02/01 Apple Pulp Investigation Background Information: For this investigation I am going to use the enzyme Pectinase to break down pectin in apple pulp. I am going to investigate how different temperatures will affect the rate at which the enzyme Pectinase works at. I will measure this by collecting the juice in a measuring cylinder, after 5 minutes. There are other factors that will affect the rate at which Pectinase works at; they are concentration and pH. We will be able to tell which temperature has worked the fastest by which one has collected the most juice. The concentration affects the rate. If you have a high concentration of enzymes then there is more enzyme particles to collide with the substrate, and more substrates will be broken down. If there is a low concentration of enzymes then there is less chance of a collision occurring between enzyme and substrate. Thus, higher concentration of Pectinase, means more juice in less time, and having a low concentration of Pectinase means having less juice in more time. The pH level affects the rate at which enzyme work. If the solution, is too acidic or too alkaline from what the enzyme is used to working in, then enzymes will be denatured. This means that the enzyme will not be able to react with the substrate it is supposed to react with. ...read more.

Middle

The two filter funnels will be placed in each of the measuring cylinders, and in each of them I will place a sheet of filter paper. I will set up the Water bath, standing on top of a tripod and gauze with a Bunsen burner underneath it. I will measure out 10g of apple pulp on the weighing scales, and put it into the large beaker using the spatula. Onto that I will place 0.2ml of Pectinase, using the syringe. I will place this into the heating/cooling bath, until it reaches 20�C/30�C/40�C/50�C/60�C. When it has reached that temperature, I will pour the contents of the beaker into the filter funnel, and I will time it for 5 minutes. While it is being timed, I will start to prepare another beaker with the same amount of apple pulp, and Pectinase, and I will start to heat/cool it. After 5 minutes I will see how much juice has been collected in the measuring cylinder, I will pour it into a smaller measuring cylinder, to make my results more accurate, and read off the points, and I will record my results on my results table. I will carry out this experiment with the 5 different temperatures, and I will then repeat my results again, so that I can get an average of the results. Throughout this experiment I will keep the concentration of Pectinase the same, and the pH the same. ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation: Overall this experiment worked quite well, and I got the results that I was looking for. I was quite accurate while doing the measuring of the weights and the measurements, and you can see from my graph that the optimum temperature is quite clearly between 40 and 50�C. There are some things that I might not have kept quite accurate, as I should have, and I will do if I do the experiments again. I would use a water bath instead of heating the enzyme myself, which made it hard to get the right temperature that I was looking for, and keep it at that temperature. I would be more accurate when putting the enzymes in, that when I did put it in that I would put it in the water bath straight away, so the enzymes couldn't get to work before they were at the temperature I wanted them to be at. I would also make sure that when I was placing the apple pulp and enzyme into the filter funnel, that I got every little scrap out of the beaker, so that it would make my results more accurate. If I did this experiment again, then I would change the way that I did these inaccuracies, and I would come out with better, more accurate results then I did in this experiment. If I were to extend what I have done, then I would chose to change the concentration of enzyme in my next experiment to see what affect that it has on the amount of apple juice produced. ...read more.

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