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"Are rechargeable batteries more economical than alkaline batteries?"

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

IB Extended Essay                                                 07-05-2003

Candidate Name: Willy Gunawan

Candidate Number: D0612-027

School: Wesley College, Melbourne

School Number: 0612

Subject: Chemistry

“Are rechargeable batteries more economical than alkaline batteries?”

Words: 3711

Acknowledgements:

                                                                                07/04/2003

I acknowledge that the work of others has been appropriately referenced and that all unacknowledged work is genuinely mine. Along with this I want to thanks all the support given by my family, and Ms. Karen Hamilton which has been very patient in guiding me and was a tremendous mental support and me during this hectic time of doing the assignment itself. Thank you, for making it possible for me to finish the project.

As English is my second language, a lot of effort and time has been put into ensuring that my language is properly used, and make sense. Yet it is inevitable that I made linguistic mistakes along the way. I would like to use this opportunity, to apologise if that is the case.

                                                                        Willy Gunawan

Contents:

Title Page…………………………………………………………………………….…...1

Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………….…...2

Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………...3

1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………4

1.1 History of Battery……….. ….……..………...……………………………...5

1.2 Background Theory of battery…..……………………………………….…7

  1. Demonstration of simple galvanic cell………………………………………9
  2. Modern Battery / Dry Cell………………………………………………....11
  3. Rechargeable Battery……………………………………………………....13

2. Comparison of batteries’ life …………………………………………………………..

        2.1 Alkalines Batteries………….………………………………………………15

        2.2 Rechargeable Batteries…………………………………………………..…17

3. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………19

4. Appendix

        4.1 Operation of a simple battery……………………………………………...20

        4.2 Comparison of batteries’ life…………………………………………….....21

5. Bibliography……………………………………………………………………….…23

Research question:

“Are rechargeable batteries more economical than alkaline batteries?”

Introduction:

Batteries are a compact portable energy source, we use batteries in our life; it has played a very important role within our modern society such as to operate portables appliances. We use torches as a backup lighting system; we use batteries on our mobile phones, as well as batteries in our cars. Many of us, do not even have the realisation that it is a perfect example of application of chemistry in daily life.

        The battery industry has become a very profitable market.

...read more.

Middle

P.T.O

Modern Battery / Dry Cell

Fig 4[6]. Cutaway view of an alkaline battery.image06.png

Figure 4. shows the new modern battery found in the supermarket nowadays. This type of cell is still based on the wet/ galvanic cell but it is far more complex in comparison to the wet cell discussed earlier. Most of us do not realise the fact that the outer casing of the battery is made by Zinc and is the anode of the battery. The pointy ends, is in-fact a graphite rod that act as the cathode surrounded by paste consisting manganese dioxide and ammonium chloride as well as zinc chloride, which act as the electrolyte.

On the outer casing of the battery the zinc undergoes oxidation

Zn(s)→ Zn2+(aq)+ 2e-

On the cathode, the reaction is as follow:

2MnO2 (s) + 2H+(aq)         + 2e-→ Mn2O3 (s) + H2O (l)        

The 2H+(aq) needed in the reduction process is gained from the electrolyte within the paste, the reaction producing 2H+(aq)follows this reaction,

NH+4 (aq) → NH3 (aq)  + H+(aq)

        There are three common dry-cell batteries, and they usually are classified by different electrolyte used in the battery. The battery mentioned at the top is mildly acidic dry-cell battery.  In an acid based battery usually sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is used while in an alkaline battery the electrolyte is replaced with 7M KOH, alkaline batteries use powdered zinc anode is used to enhance reaction. Alkaline dry cell can last longer, however it does cost more than normal dry cells. Acid based battery is used in automobile batteries, but not in household battery as they are corrosive and seen as dangerous to be used in normal household battery.

Rechargeable Battery:

image07.png

Fig 5[7]. Cutaway view of a rechargeable battery (Nickel-Cadmium/ Ni-Cad Battery).

...read more.

Conclusion

After testing and ensuring the light of the bulb, make sure that the bulb are firmly connected and in contact at all times without the need of holding it.When all circuits are set to go, start the timer.Make observation of the relative brightness of the glowing bulb initially and then within 2 hours interval.  Record their relative brightness, be investigative and sensitive during the process.When the bulbs does not seem to glow to the naked eye, detach the bulb and wire from the battery. Record the time in Table 1. image08.jpgTest the battery for its strength on the battery tester.  Record the final strength in percentage in Table 1.

PART B:

  1. Test the rechargeable batteries using the tester and make sure they are all fully charged (>95%).  Always charge batteries for the duration as instructed by using compatible chargers.  
  2. Repeat steps 3 to 10 in Part A.
  3. Recharge the batteries and then repeat steps 3 to 10 in Part A again.  
  4. Repeat procedures, to obtain depletion rates.  

Bibliography:

Books:

  • A. L Barker and KA Knapp,

Chemistry – A practical approach (1978)

  • Green, John

        Chemistry : For use with International Baccalaureate

IBID Press, Victoria

  • James, Maria

Chemical Connections: VCE Chemistry. Book two.

  • Selinger, Ben

Chemistry In The Marketplace (Fourth Edition)

  • P.J Garnett

        Foundations of chemistry

World Wide Webs:

  • Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC) :

www.rbrc.org

  • www.geocities.com/fuelcellkit
  • Experiment in Electrochemistry

http://www.funsci.com/fun3_en/electro/electro.htm

  • Independent Battery Manufacturers Association (IBMA)

http://www.thebatteryman.com/

  • Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation’s Battery lesson plan.
  • Journal of the electrochemical society (JES), Volume 145 (1998)
  • National Institute of Justice’s New Technology Batteries Guide (U.S)


[1]Taken and edited from  http://www.moteva.com/moteva/batteries_index.html

[2] Law of Conservation Energy

[3] Table scanned from IB Chemistry Data Booklet (June 2000)

[4] Picture constructed by Willy Gunawan.

[5] www.dictionary.com

[6] Picture taken from RBRC (Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation) Battery Lesson plan.

[7] Picture taken from RBRC (Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation) Battery Lesson plan.

...read more.

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