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Assessed practical on hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes.

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Introduction

Assessed practical on hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes Hydrolysis is the means in which to make an alcohol using the OH from water. Our reactants are the halogenoalkanes and hydroxide. A halogenoalkane is a hydrocarbon that has been bonded with a group7 element, for example: * Fluorine * Chlorine * Bromine * Iodine We will only be using primary halogenoalkanes. A primary molecule is where the nucleophile is on the end. We determine the classification by looking at the carbon atom that the nucleophile is bonded with, if the carbon atom is bonded to one other carbon only it is primary, if it is bonded with two then secondary and if bonded with three then it is tertiary. ...read more.

Middle

I will only use chlorine, iodine and bromine as fluorine is such a strong reactant we will not be able to break the bond between it and the carbon atom. Hence iodine, the weakest bond reactive, will react the fastest because its bond will be broken easily, then bromine and the chlorine. In this experiment I am investigating the rate of reactions for the Halogenoalkanes. I know that one mole of C4H9X plus one mole of OH� will give me one mole of butanol and on mole of X� I can use this information to determine how completed the reaction is at any given point in time. I do this by taking a sample of my reaction stopping (or at least dramatically reducing) ...read more.

Conclusion

I would set up controls for each experiment and timed how long it will take for the test to get to the same state as the control. This is not very accurate as the colours for each are different and for chlorine it would go white this is not a good colour to spot. The molar method is a lot more accurate and although more Complex. I will use the silver nitrate method to carry out the experiment. This is because it is simple and will still show which reaction is the fastest. The silver nitrate is in solution this means I will not have to add any water to the experiment and the reactions will all happen as one step rather then the hydrolysis followed by the titration. J. P. Younghusband Page 1 04/05/2007 ...read more.

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