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Atoms and particles

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Introduction Atoms are very small particles that make up everything including humans, animals and the world around us. An atom is made up of particles, which revolve around a nucleus. The particles are protons, electrons and neutrons. These particles are each in turn different. Protons have a positive charge, electrons have a negative charge while neutrons are neutral and carry no charge. The only similarities, which 2 of the particles have, are protons and neutrons and their mass is equal to the mass of an atom of hydrogen. While scientifically we call this mass one atomic mass unit. The mass of an atom depends on the amount of protons and neutrons the atom contains and the arrangement of particles within the atom. The arrangement of the particles within an atom depend on how they are positioned because every atom has a nucleus which the protons and neutrons occupy, while the electrons move around in a constant stable orbit outside of the nucleus. ...read more.


In simple terms the periodic table places the element in order of its reactivity. The reactivity of an element is in relation to their atomic number (what's inside the atom of the element). To fully understand the periodic table there is two main sections with in it, the period and the group. The group of the elements runs along the top of the table, which helps identify the element and other elements with the similar similarities of that atom. The other section is the period, which runs from right to left. When looking down the periodic structure you can see that the atomic number increases which means that the lower elements are more reactive because of their atomic structure. The periodic table is also split into different sections, which characterise what the can element react with, apart from the inert element which are also known as the noble gases. These gases have a full electron structure and don't react with anything. ...read more.


The electrons that are shared are found in groups 1 and 2 while elements that gain electrons are found in groups 6 and 7. Thus metal elements will give electrons to the non-metal elements. Overall the number of protons in the nucleus is unaffected by this giving of electrons. This will result in the element either becoming positively charged or negatively charged depending on how many electrons have been given away. Conclusion The electronic structure of the atom depends on the contents within the atom. The different amount of electrons around the shell of the atom change how reactive the atom is and its relation to the periodic table. The different processes of bonding help change the chemical properties. E.g. sodium chloride = table salt. The periodic table is basically the table, which tells us the electronic structure of the atoms. It ranges from the less reactive elements (Noble gases) to the extremely reactive elements (Halogen element). Overall the periodic table has in total of 114 known elements and it is only a matter of time before any more elements are going to be found. ...read more.

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