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Baking Soda

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Introduction

Baking Soda Aim: The aim of this report is to investigate how baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) decomposes when heated above 270�C. When heated there are some gasses which are released from the baking soda. According to the explanation the carbon dioxide released should be 37% of the whole mass. We will use this percentage to figure out which one of the possible reactions is correct. From an experiment we trued to find out which of the following reactions was correct: A. 2NaHCO3 ==> Na2 + H2O + 2CO2 B. NaHCO3 ==> NaOH + CO2 C. 2NaHCO3 ==> Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 Method: * First we measured the mass the empty crucible and lid. The mass was noted as m0 which can be seen on the table below. * After that we filled up approximately 1/4 of the crucible with sodium bicarbonate and measured the total mass. This mass was recorded as m1. * Then the sodium bicarbonate was heated over the Bunsen burner while placed in the ceramic triangle for 10 minutes * The crucible was then left aside to cool down for another 10 minutes. ...read more.

Middle

--> Na2O (s) + H2O (g) + 2CO2 (g) n 2 1 1 2 M 84 g mol-1 55 g mol-1 18 g mol-1 44 g mol-1 m 168 g 55 g 18 g 88 g From these results we can then calculate the percentage of the mass which is made up by the gasses. = = This shows that in reaction A the gasses released make up 63 percent of the total mass. This means that this equation is incorrect. Reaction B NaHCO3 (s) --> NaOH (s) + CO2 (g) n 1 1 1 M 84 g mol-1 40 g mol-1 44 g mol-1 m 84 g 40 g 44 g From these results we can then calculate the percentage of the mass which is made up by the gas. = = This shows that in reaction B the gas released makes up 52 percent of the total mass. This means that this equation is incorrect. ...read more.

Conclusion

One uncertainty is the scale we used. It could only measure with a precision of 0.01g. Though this is rather low, one can not be more precise with the experiment. It is also possible that we made some human errors during the experiment. We could simply have misread the values on the scale, or have been too quick in reading the scale as was the case during our experiment where we at first misread the mass of the crucible. There could also have been an error while heating the baking soda. We could have made the experiment more accurate by allowing the baking soda to heat for a reasonable amount of time. This would let as much of the gasses to evaporate as possible. It is also an option to use a more accurate scale. Another important thing in this experiment is making sure that the crucible we used was clean and without any leftover particles from previous experiments. And lastly one should always while conducting any experiment be careful when reading and recording the values and data necessary in the experiment. ?? ?? ?? ?? Ian Chagunda, 1.i Chemistry Report 27th February 2006 1 ...read more.

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