• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10

Batch Distillation.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Batch Distillation > ABSTRACT : In this experiment, it is required to carry out the distillation of a methanol and water mixture to determine the variation in the top concentration. In order to find the density, the samples of the top product that is collected are weighted. After recording the results, they are then subtracted from the mass of bottle that contained the samples and the results are recording again, these results are divided by volume of the bottle to get the density value. The methanol percentage determined from the graph paper attached with this report. In this report, the above information will be shown in much more detail. > OBJUCTIVE: To carry out the distillation of a methanol and water mixture to determine the variation in the top concentration. > INTORDACTION: Distillation is the most widely used method of separating mixture of liquids into their component chemicals, and it's an important process in the chemical industry. The process uses the fact that when a liquid containing tow or more components is heated to its boiling points, the composition of the vapour is usually different that to the liquid, (richer in the chemical components with the lower boiling point). The most common type of distillation column is the 'Fractionating Column' which can achieve good separation of the liquid mixture. ...read more.

Middle

Vapour from the boiling vessel rises up through the fractionation column and condenses in the condenser. This liquid condensate is returned to the top of the fractionate column and flow down the column to the boiling vessel. Under 'total reflux 'conditions all of the condensate is returned to the column. (These conditions are used when the still starting up). During the main distillation process the still was operated at the particular 'reflux ratio', and under these conditions some liquid top product was removed from the condenser and flows to a product receiver vessel. Samples could be taken of the top product, and the temperature at the top of the column and in the boiling vessel could be measured. The boiling vessel was filled to approximately above the top of heating jacket with a mixture of methanol and water (about 20% methanol, 80%water on a volume basis). The cooling water to the condenser was turned on, then the heating jacket was turned on, (water on the first for safety). With the reflux divider switched to manual - total reflux, allow the system to operate until equilibrium has been reached, (when the temperatures at the top of the column and in the boiling vessel became constant). When the system has been reached equilibrium, the temperatures at the top of the column and in the boiling vessel were noted and the reflux divider was switched to auto. ...read more.

Conclusion

* To get the methanol percentage for each run we used the graph which is attached with the report. > GRAPHS: * Graph (1): The above graph explains the relation between the time which is on the x-axis and the methanol percentage in the y-axes. We can see from the graph that when the time is increasing the methanol percentage is decreasing, and that what was discussed in the theory. * Graph (2): From the previous graph that explains the relation between the both of the boiling vessel and the top temperature against time; we can observe that as the time increasing the temperature is increasing as well, and that what was discussed in the theory. * Graph (3) The above graph explains the relation between volumes which is on the y-axis against the time which is on the x-axis. We can see from the graph that as the time is increasing the volume is increasing as well, and that what was discussed in the theory. > DISSCUSSING THE RESULT& CONCOLUTION: I think the results I got are right, because when I compared my graphs to expected shape in the theory, I got the same shape. I didn't got a good percentage of water that because the temperature which I started from was low (89 Co), if I started from higher temperature I think I was going to get better percentage of water in the last run. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Green Plants as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work