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Biology - Different drugs and everything about them

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What is a drug? A drug is a substance which alters the way that the body works Define the following words Addiction - When someone is dependant on a drug and can't do without it. Overdose - Taking more of a drug than is recommended. Can lead to death. Neurone - A single cell that carries impulses. Myelin Sheath - The coating on the neurons (nerve cells) that acts as an insulator to speed the conduction of nerve impulses. Synapses - Impulses are carried from one neurone to the next across a gap called a synapse. Tolerance - You body gets used to the drug and you need more to have the same effect. Dependence - A state in which the use of a drug is necessary for either physical or psychological well being. Drug - A chemical designed to change the way your body works. Drugs to study Stimulants - A stimulant is a drug that affects the body by making it work over time. It works in short periods of time. * Examples - The most popular stimulants are cocaine and methamphetines. Others are nicotine, speed, and caffeine. * Effects - Stimulants affect the heart by making the heart work over time. Stimulants also affect your brain's award system, pulse rate, and blood pressure. They make you throw up, lose your appetite, and make you have chess pains. ...read more.


After effects include depression, hangover-type symptoms, memory loss and uncharacteristic behaviour. Long-term effects include: weight loss, anaemia, sores around the mouth and nose tinnitus (ringing in the ears), unconsciousness, seizures and angina. * When you try to stop, what happens? - Although some withdrawal symptoms may persist for several days, solvents are not thought to cause physical dependence. Alcohol - Alcohol acts as a depressant and causes much more harm than illegal drugs like heroin and cannabis. It is a tranquilliser, it is addictive, and is the cause of many hospital admissions for physical illnesses and accidents. * Examples - ethyl alcohol, or ethanol * Effects - Many people enjoy a drink without any problems. But binge drinking or drinking heavily over longer periods of time can have very serious consequences such as brain damage, cancers, heart and liver damage, mental health problems and fertility problems. * Warning signs that you may be addicted - you do not feel right without a drink or need a drink to start the day, you get very shaky sweaty and anxious a few hours after your last drink, you can drink a lot without becoming drunk, you need to drink more and more to get the same effect, you try to stop but find you can't, you carry on drinking even though you can see it is interfering with your work family and relationships and you get "memory blanks" where you can't remember what happened for a period of hours or days. ...read more.


Cannabis - * Examples - Marijuana * Effects - Some people may feel chilled out, relaxed and happy, while others have one puff and feel sick. Others get the giggles and may become talkative. Hunger pangs are common and users may also become more aware of their senses or get a feeling of slowing of time, which are due to its hallucinogenic effects. Regular, heavy use makes it difficult to learn and concentrate. Some people begin to feel tired all the time and can't seem to get motivated. * When you try to stop, what happens? - Cravings, irritability, mood changes, appetite disturbance, weight loss, difficulty sleeping, sweating, shaking and diarrhoea in some people. * Risks - Cannabis affects your coordination, which is one of the reasons why drug driving is just as illegal as drink driving. It can cause lung disease and possibly cancer with long-term or heavy use. It can make asthma worse, and cause wheezing in non-asthma sufferer. It can increase the heart rate and can affect blood pressure. If you use cannabis and have a family background of mental illness, such as schizophrenia, you may be at increased risk of developing a psychotic illness. It can cut a man's sperm count, reduce sperm motility, and can suppress ovulation in women and so may affect fertility. If you're pregnant, smoking cannabis frequently may have some association with the risk of the baby being born smaller than expected. * Why people take it - Relaxation, inspiration and for medical use it relieves pain and stress from terminal illness's. ...read more.

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