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biology instinctive behaviour

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Introduction

Introduction . . . This report will be written about the exploitation of other animals by humans. In this report I will cover * Animal behaviour * Animal exploitation * Ethics and opinions In order to complete this report I will use several sources such as the internet and books. Animal behaviour In this section I will be writing about animal behaviour and the different ways it can be affected by various elements. Most animal behaviour requires communication. This communication can happen in many different ways such as sound, signals and chemicals. Instinctive behaviour . . . Instinctive behaviour is behaviour that is inherited from their parents, not learned. To be truly instinctive all animals of one or both sex of the same species must follow the same behaviour trait. For example, the stickleback (a fish) does not learn his complicated mating ceremony. Yet all male sticklebacks perform almost all the same actions. They are born with the pattern built into their nervous system. There are two different ways instinctive behaviour works, either by a stimulus or by hormone changes. Most instinctive behaviour is brought about by a stimulus. (A stimulus is something makes an animal act as it does). A reflex such as blinking at a bright light is an example of unlearned behaviour brought up by a stimulus. Another example is a turtle, its instincts are to head strait towards the ocean as soon as it is born and then return to the very same beach to mate and lay their eggs. To all animals it is also instinctive to communicate, hunt and avoid predators. In other cases it is dues to a hormone change. Hormone change in the animal kingdom works is in things such as reproduction, behaviour, migration, possible danger and recognising mates. For example, if you have got a train rushing towards adrenalin sets in. this is still instinctive behaviour but it is due to hormone change. Another example of this from the animal kingdom is many mammals. ...read more.

Middle

The halal and shechita method, used by Moslems and Jews, involves cutting the neck without stunning the animals. Shooting may be at close quarters, e.g. of horses, or from a distance, e.g. birds and rabbits. Fish caught at sea or by angler's die of asphyxia, when they are taken out of the water; anglers sometimes throw fish back after withdrawing the hooks; the fish may then die of inability to eat, or microbial or fungal infections. Trapping, snaring and hunting are rarely used in Britain for animals which are to be eaten. Animals Animals/Weight per annum Method of Slaughter chickens chickens turkeys ducks sheep sheep sheep pigs cattle cattle horses deer birds 600 million Not known 35 million 10 million 18 million 2 million 12 million 14 million 4 million 3 million 0.05 million 0.03 million 5 million electrical stunning and sticking Cutting carotid artery /jugular vein electrical stunning and sticking electrical stunning and sticking electrical stunning and sticking captive bolt and sticking cutting carotid artery /jugular vein electrical stunning and sticking captive bolt/percussion stunning and sticking cutting carotid artery /jugular vein shooting shooting and hunting shooting Few people who eat meat or fish, or products made from them are aware how the animals are killed. Penetrating captive bolts kill the animals most quickly, and percussion is also effective, if they are stuck before they come round. Electric stunning is probably very painful, because the animals are fully conscious when they are electrocuted. It would be impractical to anaesthetise the animals before electrocuting them, and the procedure of slaughter with carbon dioxide is too slow, although the animals die quite quickly. The challenge to the meat and fish industry is to devise methods of killing animals and fish in more humane ways, but this may not be possible on an industrial scale. It is likely that kinder and less stressful methods would make meat and fish more expensive. ...read more.

Conclusion

Dogfights end when one of the dogs will not or cannot continue. The injuries inflicted by dog's dog fighting are often severe, even fatal. The pit bull terriers used in the majority of these fights have been specifically bred and trained for fighting and are unrelenting in their attempts to overcome their opponents. With their extremely powerful jaws, they are able to inflict severe bruising, deep puncture wounds and broken bones. Dogs used in these events often die of blood loss, shock, dehydration, exhaustion, or infection hours or even days after the fight. Other animals are often sacrificed as well. Some owners train their dogs for fights using smaller animals such as cats, rabbits or small dogs. These "bait" animals are often stolen pets or animals obtained through "free to good home" advertisements. Medical . . . Before drugs and medicines can be approved for human use they are often tested on animals, to see if things such as side effects would come, or if they will be effective and treat what thy are suppose to. If these medicines are approved for human use they could be adapted to treat animals in the future if research is undertook to see the biology of the animals. The only problem is, like medical testing there are lots of risks involved with testing the new drugs/ medicines and the animals are very likely to become infected or die. Lots of countries have legal requirements were all drugs must be tested on animals before they can be approved for human use. The reason for this is because a drug called thalidomide wasn't tested right and after it had been used on humans it was found that the drug can cause body deformities the babies of mothers who had taken the drug before giving birth during pregnancy. Also, animals have other medical uses, including producing antibodies for use in vaccines and using genetic engineering to breed animals that can produce drugs for humans to use. ?? ?? ?? ?? B3 (2): behaviour in humans and other animals ...read more.

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

*** A well considered first section looking at different types of animal behaviour. The second section was written by someone who obviously cares for animals and therefore accentuated the negative impact of humans on animals whilst largely ignoring the positives.
To improve
The second section needs a more balanced approach. For example whilst some zoos might keep animals in small cages they are now many centres involved in research into animal reproduction and conservation.
All good essays are improved by summing up in the final paragraph. This could have linked the first and second part together by talking about how animal's instinctive behaviour can be studied to provide them with better living conditions when they are farmed.

Marked by teacher Stevie Fleming 03/01/2013

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