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GCSE: Green Plants as Organisms

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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating the water potential of potato

    4 star(s)

    Sucrose is also a safe material; therefore little precautionary measures need to be taken. One only needs to wear a lab coat to protect ones clothing, goggles are not needed. Sucrose is widely available and hence has been widely tested. The water potential of various concentrations have been found, this means that by finding the line of best fit, the point at which the line intersects the x-axis, the plant material will have an equal water potential to that concentration of sucrose. Firstly a set of concentrations of the sucrose solution needs to be chosen.

    • Word count: 2851
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    Investigation to find out how light intensity effects the rate of photosynthesis

    4 star(s)

    But carbon dioxide is continually added to air by respiration of all living organisms and by burning of fuel such as wood, coal, gas, oil and petrol all give off carbon dioxide when they burn. There is no danger that carbon dioxide will run out in fact it is slowly increasing in the air because so much burning takes place. Carbon dioxide dissolves in water, which can release carbon dioxide: flowering living plants living in water therefore also have a supply of carbon dioxide.

    • Word count: 3299
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    An investigation to show the effects of changing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide on the rate of catalyst

    3 star(s)

    of an enzyme controlled reaction. In this investigation the enzyme is called catalyse, and it breaks down the substrate hydrogen peroxide (H202) to produce oxygen. Variables Temperature; too hot speeds up enzymes and won?t work, or too cold and one may die, and too much substrate the enzymes will be too crowded and busy. Concentration of substrate; we are changing the amount of hydrogen peroxide. I am going to change the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide that is mixed with the yeast.

    • Word count: 1339
  4. Marked by a teacher

    transpiration lab

    3 star(s)

    Transpiration also cools plants and enables mass flow of mineral nutrients from roots to shoots. Mass flow is caused by the decrease in hydrostatic (water) pressure in the upper parts of the plants due to the diffusion of water out of stomata into the atmosphere. Water is absorbed at the roots by osmosis, and any dissolved mineral nutrients travel with it through the xylem. The rate of transpiration is directly related to whether the stomata are open or closed. The amount of water lost by a plant depends on its size, along with the surrounding light intensity, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and soil water supply.

    • Word count: 751
  5. Marked by a teacher

    Is Organic Food Good For You?

    3 star(s)

    > Eaters of organic food think that it tastes better. > Some people buy organic meat because the animals are treated better. This is the organic meat price: Meat & Poultry Farmers' market Supermarket Bacon smoked back (1kg) 9.25 13.20 Pork chops (1kg) 7.50 11.49 Minced beef (1kg) 6.00 8.58 Braising steak (1kg) 7.95 9.18 Lamb (1kg) 9.99 10.49 Chicken breast (1kg) 9.50 15.99 Sub-Total �50.19 �68.93 What the alternative to organic food? Well the alternative to oraginc food is GM (gentically modified) foods. This is were scientists in a laboratory changed the food this is known as artificial.

    • Word count: 1012
  6. Marked by a teacher

    Testing Starch in a (Variegated) Leaf - Lab Report

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    5. Place the leaf samples in the hot alcohol for about 5 minutes. 6. When the samples have decolourised, remove them from the hot alcohol using a glass rod. 7. Place the leaf samples back into the hot water for a few seconds; be careful as they could be fragile. 8. Remove the samples from the hot water and spread them out onto a white tile 9. Drop iodine reagent onto the leaf samples, you may need to wait for a few minutes 10.

    • Word count: 526
  7. Marked by a teacher

    Why does the colour leak out of cooked beetroot

    3 star(s)

    I believe as the heat rises the proteins that make up the permeable cell membrane will break down and the betalain pigment in the beetroot cells will leak out. The stronger the heat, the more the proteins will denature and more betalain will leak out. Method and Materials To carry out this experiment we used: � Raw beetroot � Size 4 cork borer � White tile � Knife � Ruler � Water baths at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 ?C � Plastic beaker, about 250 cm3 � 2 boiling tube racks � Crushed ice � 8 boiling tubes � Thermometer (one per water bath)

    • Word count: 1118
  8. Marked by a teacher

    Why does the colour leak out of cooked beetroot

    3 star(s)

    Prediction I predict that as the temperature increases, so will the colour of the beetroot. I predict this because of the knowledge I have on membrane structures. The red colour you see in beetroot, is a red dye that comes from pigments present in the beetroot called betalains, which are present in the cell vacuole. When beetroot is cooked, the temperature causes the pigments to leak through the cell membranes, which would not happen if it was not cooked. This happens because the increase in temperature damages the cell membrane, which causes the cytoplasm and other substances to leak out.

    • Word count: 713
  9. Marked by a teacher

    To measure heat loss in two test tubes which represent bodies, one which sweats (the wet test tube) and one body which doesn't sweat (the dry test tube).

    3 star(s)

    I will use exactly the same apparatus, the same amount of water in each test tube as well as the same amount of paper towelling each time. I will measure the temperature change in each test tube for the same amount of time and will begin measuring the temperature when the temperature in each test tube is the same. Plan: Preliminary Experiment. 1. I started by setting up my apparatus as it's shown in the diagram above. 2. I then boiled some water in a kettle.

    • Word count: 1207
  10. Marked by a teacher

    The Biological importance of water

    3 star(s)

    Because water can dissolve many substances, it can act as a transport medium. For example it can transport minerals to lakes and seas and can also remove metabolic wastes such as urea and ammonia in urine. Water has also a specific heat capacity. This means that a lot of heat energy is needed to change the state of water from liquid to gas (100�C to change from liquid to gas). This means that water does not change its temperature very easily. This is ideal in human and animal bodies as it allows the temperature of the body to stay maintained.

    • Word count: 641
  11. Marked by a teacher

    An experiment to measure the amount of oxygen bubbles given off in different strengths of sodium hydrogen carbonate

    3 star(s)

    Once these 3 minutes are over I will be taking readings on how many bubbles come out of the weed every 30 seconds and I will be taking ten readings. After I have took all these reading I will do the same again. But instead of the piece of pond weed being in water in will now be in 0.25% NaHCO3 and I will do the same leave it for 3 minutes so that the weed can get used to the solution and then I will start taking readings.

    • Word count: 923
  12. Marked by a teacher

    Investigate which surface of a leaf loses more water by transpiration.

    3 star(s)

    Scientific reason for prediction The reason for my first prediction is that the underside is covered in stomata pores, making it possible for water to leave the leaf when the pores are open. On the topside however, there are no pores, just a waxy layer instead. This means that almost no water can leave the leaf via this particular surface. The process of evaporation through the stomata means that the plant can easily control the amount of water that it releases into the environment.

    • Word count: 2367
  13. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the effect of a germination inhibitor on the germination of seeds.

    3 star(s)

    This is similar to the water-soluble protein germination inhibitor found in tomatoes because this will also alter the rate of reaction; it will alter the rate of germination in the seeds. Enzymes can be denatured when the temperature rises above their specific optimum temperature because the molecules vibrate so much that the bonds break and so the structure and shape is changed. So this germination inhibitor will have an optimum temperature and, like enzymes, will stop working to its particular function when this temperature is exceeded.

    • Word count: 6990
  14. Marked by a teacher

    The effect of temperature change on the activity rate of Trypsin.

    3 star(s)

    A water bath was used to control the temperature of the mixture. Hot water from a kettle was used to heat up the Trypsin and milk mix, and ice was added to the water bath to cool it down when necessary. Trypsin was added to the milk and see how long it took for the milk to become transparent. A piece of paper was placed behind the test tube with writing on it. When the writing was clearly readable, the elapsed time on the stopwatch was recorded.

    • Word count: 679
  15. Marked by a teacher

    How are aquatic invertebrates adapted for gas exchange?

    3 star(s)

    An example of an aquatic invertebrate with this adaptation is the stonefly nymph, which was located in deep areas of slow moving water as it can get the oxygen it needs through this form of gas exchange. There were also organisms that had a circulatory system meaning that the oxygen they need is quickly transported via the blood that has obtained the oxygen by diffusion. The surface area to volume ratio also contributes to the high oxygen levels taken in.

    • Word count: 877
  16. Marked by a teacher

    Importance of Water.

    3 star(s)

    Not one of the processes in our bodies could take place without water. Water is something that we take for granted. But how many of us really understand how essential water is or what happens to our body if it doesn't receive pure water every day, free of chemicals and pollutants? � Water is the adhesive that bonds your cell architecture. When you get enough water fluid retention decreases, and gland and hormone functions improve. � Water regulates your body temperature, maintains your equilibrium and helps the liver break down and release more fat.

    • Word count: 1598
  17. Marked by a teacher

    Experiment to find the relationship between the size of the surface area to volume ratio of a container and the rate heat is lost

    3 star(s)

    * The independent variable is the size of the container and therefore the surface area to volume ratio. * The dependant variable is the rate of heat loss measured by temperature and time taken. Hypothesis * I think that the rate of heat loss will increase with a larger surface area to volume ratio and decrease with a smaller surface area to volume ratio over a period of time. Also I think that the rate of heat loss will decrease over a period of time.

    • Word count: 773
  18. Marked by a teacher

    Design a practical experiment to investigate the effect of light wavelength on the rate of photosynthesis.

    3 star(s)

    * Hold the test tube horizontally and then turn it upside down so that the pondweed enters the jar and attach the test tube to the clamp. Ensure that it is held firmly and that it is steady for safety reasons. * Take one of the coloured filters and wrap it around the jar. Use sticky tape to keep it in place if necessary. * Shine the lamp light onto the jar; make sure that it reaches the pondweed, at 10cm distance in each experiment so that the intensity of light will remain the same so that the results obtained are valid.

    • Word count: 681
  19. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the relationship between heat loss and surface area to volume ratio

    3 star(s)

    Secondly I realised that the thermometer was placed free to move and that because of localised heat spots it was unable to measure the temperature properly. What I mean by this is that some areas of the water used to be hotter than others and if the thermometer came upon that area and moved on the temperature reading would vary. Therefore I decided to clamp the thermometer into place, thus ensuring that it doesn't roll through heat spots. The third thing which I noticed was the most crucial.

    • Word count: 2871
  20. Marked by a teacher

    Investigate the relationship between wavelength of light and the rate of photosynthesis using pondweed.

    3 star(s)

    Chlorophyll absorbs the sunlight and uses it to synthesise carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. This process is known as photosynthesis and is the basis for sustaining the life process of all plants. * The job of chlorophyll is to convert light energy into chemical energy. Chlorophyll absorbs the light energy and therefore enables it to be used for building up sugar. * The chlorophyll uses light energy to carry out photosynthesis and it can perform the process at the rate light is provided. White light made up of a range of colours or wavelengths called a spectrum.

    • Word count: 2977
  21. Marked by a teacher

    An Experiment Investigating the Factors Affecting Photosynthesis in Canadian Pondweed

    3 star(s)

    This experiment should be conducted in the dark so that any other lights (other than the light I am using) will not affect my experiment. * Temperature - the heat of the water I am using during my experiment can have an affect on the rate of photosynthesis. The water must not be too cold, as the pondweed will not be able to photosynthesise at a measurable rate. It must also not be too hot, as this will kill the plant.

    • Word count: 1457
  22. Marked by a teacher

    An Experiment to Determine the Water Potential (Ψ) of a Plant Tissue, using Discs of Beetroot

    3 star(s)

    This is because osmosis (the net movement of water molecules through a partially permeable membrane) is taking place. Osmosis ALWAYS involves water molecules moving DOWN the concentration gradient, from where they are in a high water concentration (where ? is close to 0) to where they are in a low water concentration(where ? is a more negative number). If the water potential in the cell is lower than that of its surrounding environment, osmosis will occur from the surroundings to the cell's cytoplasm.

    • Word count: 1160
  23. Marked by a teacher

    Science Investigation Into What Affects The Rate That An Aspirin Dissolves At In Water

    3 star(s)

    I will move up in ten-degree steps between each successive experiment from a range of 30-90�C. These temperatures will be easy to achieve, it would be harder to get colder temperatures and with temperatures higher than one hundred degrees the water will start boiling which will interfere with the fairness of the experiment. I will repeat the experiment at each temperature three times then take an average for greater accuracy. I will remove the water from the heat as soon as the required temperature is reached then drop the aspirin in, immediately starting the clock as it comes into contact with the water.

    • Word count: 2558
  24. Marked by a teacher

    Photosynthesis and Limiting Factors

    3 star(s)

    Much research is now being devoted to this effort. An artificial molecule that remains polarized sufficiently long enough to react usefully with other molecules has not yet been perfected, but the prospects of this are promising. Prediction: I predict that more heat will increase the rate of photosynthesis. I predict that at 0�C there will be few bubbles and at around 40�C, it will be at its peak. After 40�C the rate of photosynthesis will again drop. I can show this in a simple graph: I think this because the enzyme that breaks down the carbon dioxide stops working or is even obliterated by temperatures over 40�C as shown in my background knowledge.

    • Word count: 1439
  25. Marked by a teacher

    Biology Coursework : Rate of Photosynthesis

    3 star(s)

    Light intensity can be varied by increasing or decreasing the distance from the light source to the plant. Fixed Variables Light Wavelength (colour)- pigments in the leaf such as chlorophyll absorb Light energy. Chlorophyll easily absorbs blue light, in the 400-450 nm range, and also easily absorbs red light in the 650-700 nm range. Chlorophyll does not absorb green light or yellow light effectively but tends to reflect them, decreasing the amount of light absorbed and decreasing the rate of photosynthesis.

    • Word count: 1904

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