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GCSE: Humans as Organisms

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  1. Marked by a teacher

    compare and contrast three ways of giving up smoking

    3 star(s)

    Nicotine makes people feel better physically-as in calm and psychologically- being able to cope with things. This however, is a very difficult form of addiction as you will have a strong desire to smoke, even if you wish to stop. Smokers often continue because they experience unpleasant withdrawal affects when they stop; which shows why during WW1 people smoked and it also explains the fact that it increased through out the years because they found it difficult to stop. Common withdrawal effects include: * Irritability * Difficulty in concentrating * Craving for another cigarette Fortunately, by stopping smoking you can improve your health and live a longer life.

    • Word count: 1098
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Does Caffeine affect Heart Rate?

    3 star(s)

    Caffeine acts as a stimulant drug. How caffeine works The brain produces a chemical called adenosine. Adenosine blinds to the adenosine receptors in the brain and this slows the nerve cell activity down which leads to tiredness. However Caffeine looks like adenosine to the nerve cell and it blinds to the caffeine but the caffeine does not slow the cell down but increases activity in the cell. This stimulates the central nervous system therefore increasing heart rate. It can also constrict blood vessels in the brain and this reduces the amount of blood flow in the brain and this is why caffeine is used in Anacine to relive vascular headaches.

    • Word count: 1067
  3. Marked by a teacher

    A-Level Biology Revision Notes

    3 star(s)

    Total Iron Binding Capacity: A test that measures indirectly the transferrin level in the bloodstream. Transferrin is a protein that carries iron in the body. Normal values are 240 to 450 mcg/dl. This test is used to evaluate anemia. Greater than normal TIBC can be seen in: iron deficiency anemia, late pregnancy, and polycythemia vera. Lower than normal TIBC can be seen in cirrhosis, sickle cell anemia, hypoproteinemia, pernicious anemia, and hemolytic anemia. The use of birth control pills can lead to increased TIBC measurements. Splinter Haemorrhages: A linear haemorrhage below the nails, usually the result of trauma but also occurring in such conditions as subacute bacterial endocarditis or severe rheumatoid artheritis. Microcytosis: (Hypochromic microcytic)

    • Word count: 1813
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Synoptic Biology Essay - "The transport of oxygen from air in the alveoli of the lungs to the cytoplasm of respiring muscle cell".

    3 star(s)

    The mammalian trachea is a tube, which links the mouth and nose to the lungs in air-breathing vertebrates. The trachea is also known as the windpipe and runs from the larynx (voice-box) to the bronchi. It is supported by rings of cartilage, which prevent it collapsing during ventilation. The inspired air travels through the bronchi and bronchioles to the alveoli. These are further tubes that decrease in size with an increasing distance from the mouth. Alveoli are air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange takes place. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are small, uncharged molecules. They diffuse (i.e.

    • Word count: 1136
  5. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating the effect of exercise on the heart rate and recovery time.

    3 star(s)

    The belt is moistened so it can read the heart rate easier, then it is placed around the chest. The watch is fastened to the wrist where it picks up the heart rate from the belt. You must make sure that you don't stand too close to someone else using the belt because you may pick up their signal. * A tape measure, to work out how far he has to run. We will be measuring in metres. * A stop clock, to time how long it takes his heart rate to return to normal, we will measure the time in minutes and seconds.

    • Word count: 1673
  6. Marked by a teacher

    Does listening to music affect your heart rate?

    3 star(s)

    Aim: To study and find out if music actually affects our heart rate and if so how? I will also attempt to see if the heart rate changes whilst listening to different types of music at different volumes. Prediction: I predict that listening to music should actually increase/speed up the heart rate as more blood will be needed by the muscles. I also believe that listening to different types of music at different volumes could also take affect on a persons heart rate.

    • Word count: 887
  7. Marked by a teacher

    What made Galen famous? Galen was born in AD 129 in Pergamum, Greece.

    3 star(s)

    Galen supported the theories of Hippocrates on ethics and OBSERVATION and he believed in the four humours. He increased his anatomical knowledge (gained from treating wounded gladiators) by dissecting animals. He wasn't allowed to dissect human bodies or study skeletons so he often had to wait for CHANCE opportunities like a flood in a cemetery or a rotting corpse on a gibbet. Some of Galen's work was wrong because of his limited bodies to study. He described livers as the wrong shape and thought that the "rete mirabile" which is a network of blood vessels on the undersurface of an animal's brain would be found in humans.

    • Word count: 595
  8. Marked by a teacher

    Why is swimming good for you?

    3 star(s)

    However, swimming will not build up your bones because you need to perform weight-bearing, land-based exercises to do this. Also there is some evidence that exercise may protect against colon cancer, and can help the elderly retain more of their ability to think clearly. Swimming is kinder to your body than other sports Swimming is, generally, kinder to your body than land-based exercise because your natural buoyancy in water helps you avoid the jarring knocks that can cause injuries. In water you weigh about a tenth of your normal weight, and the range of motion for the less fit person is much wider, as the water supports the weight of your limbs.

    • Word count: 1043
  9. Marked by a teacher

    The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Treatments Of Heart Disease.

    3 star(s)

    There are many factors that may contribute to some people having a higher chance of contracting heart disease compared to others; one reason for this is hereditary. Some people have a genetic predisposition, though unfortunate this is not uncommon, children inherit high LDL (low-density lipoproteins) cholesterol levels from their parents or even a lack of receptors which detect and remove LDL, this leads to a greater abundance of plaques which in turn may lead to heart disease (source 4 &1).

    • Word count: 2664
  10. Marked by a teacher

    Altitude training

    3 star(s)

    The haemoglobin is still not fully saturated with oxygen. The increase of red blood cell count is brought about by the increase in the manufacture of red blood cells, which is a rapid response to cope with the altitude, and there is a reduction of plasma volume, which is a slow response to the result of the acclimatisation. Increased rate of breathing: To compensate for the decrease in the alveoli, breathing rate increases. This response develops of several days and not instantly.

    • Word count: 1397
  11. Marked by a teacher

    How Does Lifestyle Affect the Circulatory System?

    3 star(s)

    Cardiovascular deaths are rising compared with other causes of death. Here is some information from the American heart association. "For the first time since 1980 in aging men and women. In the USA alone 1.5 million people have heart attacks every year at a cost of $51.6 billion. The American Heart Association's Heart reports cardiovascular diseases killed 954,138 in the US in 1993. Stroke deaths rose to 150,000. And the number of people treated in the hospital for cardiovascular diseases rose to 5.7 million."

    • Word count: 1535
  12. Marked by a teacher

    How Does Temperature Affect the Rate of Respiration of Yeast?

    3 star(s)

    One problem is that alcohol is poisonous in large amounts. If the concentration of alcohol gets more than about 14% it kills the yeast and the fermentation stops. The temperature of the yeast respires at different temperatures and the enzymes in yeast work faster or slower at breaking down the glucose according to this. Enzymes are catalysts which speed up reactions, they are made from protein and are specific as to which substrate they work on. Enzymes basically work due to the 'lock and key' theory, where the substrate substance (the 'key')

    • Word count: 1980
  13. Marked by a teacher

    Abortion Case Study

    Undeniably these babies are existing human life. Statistical Analysis Science has a great deal to say about abortion, as biological awareness shows that an embryo is human life as shown above. Taking this into account, in 2004 there were 184,400 abortions in England and Wales alone, (source 1). This was a 2.1% increase since 2003. If a person believes that life begins at fertilisation, this is over 180,000 human murders every year. The majority of abortions take place in the age range of 16 - 24 year old mothers.

    • Word count: 1504
  14. Marked by a teacher

    How Exercise Affects Your Heart Rate and Recovery Time

    After I have three pulse readings of regular pattern, I will place my stool ready and take with me a stopwatch, pencil and book. All making as little movement as possible so as to raise my pulse rate as little as possible. Stopwatch in hand, I will step my right followed by my left foot onto the stool rung and down again every six seconds. This will carry on for a minute and then I will sit down and find my pulse in my neck using my index and middle finger.

    • Word count: 1411
  15. Marked by a teacher

    Biology heart rate Planning

    The oxygen is absorbed by body cells to produce energy by respiration, which is needed for metabolism. The closing and opening of the semilunar and tricuspid valves results in the sound produced by the heart (lub dub), which is the heartbeat. When we train or do any form of exercise our heart rate increases. This occurs because muscles require more oxygen to meet the high-energy requirements. As a result the heart pumps blood faster and the muscles absorb more oxygen. Since the heart pumps blood faster the heart beat increases. List of all possible factors affecting heart rate during exercise 1. Temperature: The environmental ambient temperature when performing a high intensity exercise significantly affects heart rate. 2.

    • Word count: 944
  16. Peer reviewed

    n this essay I will analysing what makes us happy and be going into vast depths as to what factors affect happiness and how certain chemicals, neurotransmitters and endorphins in the brain affects this procedure.What makes us happy

    5 star(s)

    Generally the rule is that; the smaller the goal, the shorter the time of happiness, for example; buying a new car or a new home can give us a quick feeling of enjoyment but at the same time can quickly wear off, compared with these next factors. Health, family and friends, these are by far the most important factors for our happiness. [2] If we are healthy people and in relatively good shape, with good family, a good marriage or have a relationship in a good condition, we are more likely to be in a position that will make us

    • Word count: 1309
  17. Peer reviewed

    Stem Cell Therapy

    5 star(s)

    Even though there are no mainstream embryonic stem cell (stem cells from blastocyst) therapies today, there are therapies which use adult stem cells. The best known of all these therapies is the bone marrow transplant, which is used to treat patients with blood or immune system disorders such as leukaemia. Leukaemia is when leukocytes start to grow abnormally, becoming cancer. As bone marrow is the place where new blood cells are made, the marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells.

    • Word count: 514
  18. Peer reviewed

    What is DNA?

    5 star(s)

    Watson and Francis Crick suggested what is now accepted as the first accurate model of DNA structure in the journal Nature. Experimental evidence for Watson and Crick's model were published in a series of five articles in the same issue of Nature Of these, Franklin and Raymond Gosling's paper was the first publication of X-ray diffraction data that supported the Watson and Crick model, this issue also contained an article on DNA structure by Maurice Wilkins and his colleagues. In 1962, after Franklin's death, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins jointly received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    • Word count: 2578
  19. Peer reviewed

    Analysis of anaemia.

    5 star(s)

    However, if your diet is inadequate, even small, persistent losses of blood may cause anaemia. There are several kinds of anemia. Iron-deficiency anaemia can develop in those who do not have enough iron, which is an essential ingredient of haemoglobin. Lack of Vitamin B-12 or folic acid can result in Vitamin B-12 deficient anaemia and folic acid deficient anaemia. Hemolytic anaemia occurs when red blood cells are destroyed more quickly than they can be replaced. The symptoms of anaemia include fatigue, weakness, fainting, breathlessness, and heart palpitations.

    • Word count: 452
  20. Peer reviewed

    Experiment. How much energy is there in some foods that you eat?

    4 star(s)

    1643.91 =1.64kJ/g 4.19 1000 Type of food Energy level/kJ/g Energy level/kJ/100g multiply kJ/g by 100 Actual energy level shown by the nutrition facts/kJ/100g Jack n' Jill chips 1.77 177 2207 Digestive 1.73 173 1962 Crackers 1.82 182 1985 EDO 1.64 164 2240 The order of amount of energy in each food from my calculations kJ/100g- 1. Crackers 182 2. Jack n' Jill chips 177 3. Digestive 173 4. EDO 164 The order of amount of energy in each food from the companies kJ/100g- 1.

    • Word count: 1009
  21. Peer reviewed

    Animal Pharming

    4 star(s)

    Also, organs can be grown for transplants. The proteins produced serve many purposes, including treatments for many diseases such as HIV and malaria. These animals can also produce antibodies, which are used in vaccine development. Transgenic animals are very expensive to produce and they have a high value. Also, only a few of the attempts succeed in producing a transgenic animal. The Financial Times predicted that 600 transgenic cows, could supply the worldwide need for pharmaceuticals. Now that computers are being used more in laboratories, scientists have reduced the time needed to identify and collect genes.

    • Word count: 558
  22. Free essay

    Should we spend time in the sun?

    4 star(s)

    Skin cancer is becoming increasingly more common for several reasons: people are living longer, people are going on more holidays abroad plus many people still consider sun tans to be healthy. There are two main types of skin cancer: basal cell carcinoma, which can be treated easily and is not life threatening, and there is malignant melanoma which can be deadly if it isn't treated in the early stages. Evolving Melanoma Melanomas can often look like this I gathered this information from this website: http://www.canadianskincancer.com/ Economical Factors With the increasing problem of skin cancer it is costing the National Health Service (NHS)

    • Word count: 1301
  23. Peer reviewed

    The relative importance of factors that cause coronary heart disease

    4 star(s)

    One major economical factor contributing to coronary heart diseases is smoking. Over half of Britain indulges in more than five cigarettes a day. This increases the risks of arteriosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis refers to the hardening or narrowing of the coronary arteries. The arteries supply the blood that carries oxygen and nutrients to the heart. However, if they become blocked by arthrosclerosis, they are unable to deliver a certain amount of blood to the heart muscle. This can result in angina and heart failures due to weakening heart muscle. What does the smoke do ???????????????

    • Word count: 698
  24. Peer reviewed

    Should the drink drive limit be zero?

    3 star(s)

    The sensors are very specific and highly sensitive to alcohol. However, even without drinking, some alcohol can be present in the body from other sources, such as the digestion of certain foods, or as an ingredient in mouth wash. This means that a zero limit isn't practical. They are also highly sensitive to the atmosphere. Cigarette smoke and many other environmental gases can affect the readings2. This source is the most reliable because it does not favour a particular organisation. I am unsure about the validity of this source. For the Drink Driving Limit Being Zero * Social Issues Drink driving causes an obscene amount of accidents, casualties and deaths.

    • Word count: 1111
  25. Peer reviewed

    Is Sunbathing Bad For You?

    3 star(s)

    However, new research suggests that some exposure to UV rays is essential for good health, and may even protect against other forms of cancer. http://images.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=w www.wiki-answers.com www.bbc.co.uk Melanoma Melanoma is the worst form of cancer you can get, it is said to be caused by UV Rays that come from the sun. Tanning Humans tan as a way of protection from the sun. Melanoma is a malignant skin tumour that involves the skin cells that produce the pigment melanin. The risk of melanoma increases with age, but frequently affects young, otherwise healthy people.

    • Word count: 1308

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