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An Investigation into the effect of substrate concentration (H2O2) on the rate of breakdown by catalase.

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Introduction

An Investigation into the effect of substrate concentration (H2O2) on the rate of breakdown by catalase. 2H2O2 (l) O2 (g) + 2H2O (l) Hydrogen Peroxide Oxygen +Water Introduction: In this experiment I will be observing and comparing the rate of breakdown by the enzyme, 'Catalase' and Hydrogen Peroxide. The concentration of the Hydrogen Peroxide will be changed and, after the amount of oxygen is measured, I will be able to produce a table and graph of the changes in breakdown time. Aim: After I collect my results I will be able to plot a graph of the amount of oxygen produced over time, from which the rate of catalytic breakdown can de deduced. This will show how the rate of breakdown is affected by the substrate concentration and if there is any correlation between them, justifying my conclusion. Before the experiments begin, the method of conducting the experiment must be outlined meticulously. Method: In order to carry out my experiment, there must be a uniform method that I will use continuously during my experiment. I will be using an array of equipment that will be kept the same at all times. The experiment has a number of factors within it, which are easily adjustable, called variables. Therefore the controlled variables which must be controlled are: * Temperature- This can be controlled by using a water bath or ...read more.

Middle

The main Variables are:- * pH- This must be kept the same as it will affect the enzyme which is pH sensitive, and may denature or work better at certain pH's. * Time- I will have to keep the time of 20 seconds uniform and unchanged throughout the experiment by using a stopwatch correctly. * Temperature- This is relatively easy to keep controlled as the exothermic reaction is not too evident in the climate-controlled room. * The Concentration and volume of Catalase must be kept the same- by measuring the same amount of Yeast (5ml) each time. * The Volume of Hydrogen Peroxide must be the same- for each particular concentration the same amount of Distilled water and Hydrogen Peroxide must be used. These are the 'control variables' as they are being monitored, not changed. * The Concentration of the Substrate- the Hydrogen Peroxide will be changed to see how this affects my results. This is the 'Independent' Variable that I will be changing to affect the reaction rate and Volume of oxygen produced. * The volume of Oxygen produced after 35 seconds. This is the 'Dependant Variable' which 'depends' on the other variables, being unchanged to work Safety: First of all the procedure must be carried out in a safe and controlled way, where the risks are minimal and the appropriate precautions are taken to ensue maximum safety for more accurate results. ...read more.

Conclusion

This could gravely affect the results on my graph and appear to be an anomalously fast reaction. * In order to reduce the event of a gas-leakage, a firmly-placed rubber bung and tight-fitting rubber tubing must be applied otherwise the results could be badly compromised. I will also leave the syringe in the tubing so that no gas can escape from the apparatus. Prediction: "I predict that as the concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide decreases, the rate of reaction will decrease as well as the amount of Oxygen produced." This is because according to the collision theory when a substance has an increased concentration it has more available particles to collide with those of the other chemicals, and so by increasing the Concentration the rate of reaction should increase. When the concentration is low, there are less of the Hydrogen Peroxide particles available to react and so the reaction rate decreases, shown above by the few Hydrogen Peroxide particles that will react with the Yeast particles but will take much longer. The above diagram shows how when there are more Hydrogen Peroxide particles the reaction quickens, simply because of the fact that more particles are reacting simultaneously. Preliminary Results: Time (Secs) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Reading No. 1 15 26 37 46 56 61 66 2 21 29 29 39 46 52 56 3 15 28 42 48 60 70 78 ?? ?? ?? ?? - 1 - ...read more.

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