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Biotic factors will also have to be taken into consideration; these

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Introduction

To what extents do abiotic factors affect the rate of photosynthesis?? Biotic factors will also have to be taken into consideration; these include things like food, plants, animals, and their interactions among one another and the biotic environment. One factor that may need to be taken into consideration could be how vulnerable the ivy leaves are to human or animal interference, for example trampling. Human activities produce a wide variety of pollutants of land, air and water. The closeness and intensity of any human activities will be considered as well. All these biotic factors will need to taken into account while carrying out the experiment in both the regions in the woodlands. Biotic environment includes such factors as soil, water, atmosphere, and radiation. The biotic environment is made up of many objects and forces that influence one another and influence the surrounding community of living things. Other biotic factors include the amount of living space and certain nutrients (nourishing substances) available to an organism. All organisms need a certain amount of space in which to live and carry on community relationships. They also must have nonliving nutrients, such as phosphorus, to maintain such body activities as circulation and digestion. Ecology is the study of the relationships between organisms and their environment. ...read more.

Middle

� NPK-nutrient concentration of soil � Nitrogen - this element is a constituent of amino acids, proteins, coenzymes, nucleic acids and chlorophyll. Nitrogen has a great effect on plant growth. If missing, then plant will be underdeveloped and old leaves would turn yellow. � Phosphate - the element is involved in photosynthesis, and needed in the light independent stage to be more precise. If this element is not available the young leaves will turn purple and roots will struggle to grow. � Potassium - this element is needed by enzymes which are involved in photosynthesis and respiration. A shortage of potassium would result in leaves turning yellow and developing dead spots. � Temperature of air and soil - All chemical and biological activities of a soil are influenced by temperature. The temperature of a soil may be from that of the air above it. Evaporation of water from soil may cool it to below that of the air, whereas solar radiation may raise it above air temperature. Soil temperature affects plant growth indirectly by affecting water and nutrient uptake as well as root growth. Reliability, Measurements and Accuracy In this investigation, 60 ivy leaves from a shaded region and another 60 leaves from an unshaded region from the same woodland will be measured. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is another method which would need to be improved on for future experiments, to help give a more accurate result. As light intensity was the main abiotic factor being investigated, three light intensities were measured in each area at different distances from the ground (50cm, 100cm and 150cm above ground level). This way the best possible value for light intensity in the area overall can be measured. When light intensity was measured using the light probe, the probe was directed towards a clipboard from each height. This was to ensure a consistent, reliable and reflection is detected by the light meter. Whilst light intensity is the only abiotic factor which was being investigated, it would have been ideal if all other abiotic factors remained the same in both areas, throughout the experiment. However this was not the case as we cannot control them, but any differences were be taken into account. To minimise the effect of each variable, the investigation took place on the same day, to ensure a certain degree of fair testing. There were no anomalous results, but if there had been any anomalous results they would have been most likely due to human error more than anything else. All precautions were taken while carrying out this experiment. Safety Goggles and gloves were worn when carrying out the pH and NPK test, the equipment was used in an orderly and responsible manner and any spillage was cleaned up quickly and disposed of. ...read more.

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