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Bonding and states of matter.

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States of Matter SOLID LIQUID GAS Atoms Al Electrons orbit the nucleus, it does this in shells, 1st shell holds a max of 2 electrons, after that shells hold up to 8 electrons. Proton = positive Neutron = neutral Electron = Negative Isotopes- atoms that are the same but can vary in the number of neutrons but have the same amount of protons. e.g. C C C IONIC BONDING In general metal atoms lose electrons to form positive ions and non- metal atoms gain electrons to form negative ions. An ionic compound is formed when a metal atom joins with a non-metal atom. An electron is lost from sodium and gained in the Clorine making them both have full outer shells. Compounds with giant ionic structures * Made of crystals * Usually have high M.P. ...read more.


- Gas (aq) - aqueous solution(dissolves in water) IONS Some ions contain more than one element e.g. NO3 (-) but the same rules apply as in simple ions. Brackets are needed when more complex ions are involves e.g. Fe(3+) + NO3(-) Fe(NO3)3 elements tend to be positive ions and compounds negative ions. ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS If you have one metal and one non-metal the compound will end in "ide". e.g Magnesium + Oxygen Magnesium oxide If you have two non-metals the compound will end in "ate" e.g. Copper + sulphur Copper sulphate + Oxygen The numbers in a formula show the amount of each kind of atom in the compound or element. e.g. H2 two hydrogen atoms BALANCING EQUATIONS * Chemical reactions are really re-arrangements of atome reactant substances that have their atoms re-arranged and they become product substances. ...read more.


* Alkali metal compounds are white when solid an colourless in a solution, soluble, they have a PH above 7, i.e. alkali Halogens are in group 7 Flourine Chlorine Bromine Iodine yellow green red/brown Purple gas gas solid liquid Fl2 Cl2 Br2 I2 A Halide is formed when a Halogen is in an equation. TRANSITIONAL METALS * Found between groups 2 and 3 * Can form oxides with two different formulas both oxides formed are colourless * Transitional metals and their compounds make good catalysts. Uses: Iron - man hole covers Copper - water pipes Nickel - coins Titanium - aircraft industry SODIUM CHLORIDE Can be ontained from collecting sea water and allowing water to evaporate leaving salt. Formula = Na + Cl NaCl Substance Uses Chlorine solvents, bleeches, kills bacteria in pools and drinking water, whitens paper Hydrogen Combines with oxygen to form water Sodium Hydroxide Soap, detergents, paper ...read more.

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