• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Bonding and states of matter.

Extracts from this document...


States of Matter SOLID LIQUID GAS Atoms Al Electrons orbit the nucleus, it does this in shells, 1st shell holds a max of 2 electrons, after that shells hold up to 8 electrons. Proton = positive Neutron = neutral Electron = Negative Isotopes- atoms that are the same but can vary in the number of neutrons but have the same amount of protons. e.g. C C C IONIC BONDING In general metal atoms lose electrons to form positive ions and non- metal atoms gain electrons to form negative ions. An ionic compound is formed when a metal atom joins with a non-metal atom. An electron is lost from sodium and gained in the Clorine making them both have full outer shells. Compounds with giant ionic structures * Made of crystals * Usually have high M.P. ...read more.


- Gas (aq) - aqueous solution(dissolves in water) IONS Some ions contain more than one element e.g. NO3 (-) but the same rules apply as in simple ions. Brackets are needed when more complex ions are involves e.g. Fe(3+) + NO3(-) Fe(NO3)3 elements tend to be positive ions and compounds negative ions. ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS If you have one metal and one non-metal the compound will end in "ide". e.g Magnesium + Oxygen Magnesium oxide If you have two non-metals the compound will end in "ate" e.g. Copper + sulphur Copper sulphate + Oxygen The numbers in a formula show the amount of each kind of atom in the compound or element. e.g. H2 two hydrogen atoms BALANCING EQUATIONS * Chemical reactions are really re-arrangements of atome reactant substances that have their atoms re-arranged and they become product substances. ...read more.


* Alkali metal compounds are white when solid an colourless in a solution, soluble, they have a PH above 7, i.e. alkali Halogens are in group 7 Flourine Chlorine Bromine Iodine yellow green red/brown Purple gas gas solid liquid Fl2 Cl2 Br2 I2 A Halide is formed when a Halogen is in an equation. TRANSITIONAL METALS * Found between groups 2 and 3 * Can form oxides with two different formulas both oxides formed are colourless * Transitional metals and their compounds make good catalysts. Uses: Iron - man hole covers Copper - water pipes Nickel - coins Titanium - aircraft industry SODIUM CHLORIDE Can be ontained from collecting sea water and allowing water to evaporate leaving salt. Formula = Na + Cl NaCl Substance Uses Chlorine solvents, bleeches, kills bacteria in pools and drinking water, whitens paper Hydrogen Combines with oxygen to form water Sodium Hydroxide Soap, detergents, paper ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Classifying Materials section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Classifying Materials essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Identifying an Ionic Compound. Objectives: To learn and test for metal ions ...

    5 star(s)

    by adding 0.1 mol/dm3 of HCL. For this test, many white bubbles formed meaning that when we add dilute hydrochloric acid to a carbonate, carbon dioxide gas is released. In fact, we can see this in the equation: 2 H+(aq) + CO32-(aq) H2O(l) + CO2(g) My second data table shows the results for part 1 of the experiment regarding metal ions.

  2. Redox reactions and the halogens.

    Disproportionation Halogens have variable oxidation numbers E.g. Iodine 3I2(s) + 6KOH(aq) � KIOH3(aq) + 5KI(aq) + 3H2O(l) 0 +5 -1 I2 is both oxidised and reduced = Disproportination Topic 7 Covalent and bond breaking It is covalent bonding that holds together the atoms in molecules Electron density maps Bonds consist of electrons shared between molecules, which can b portrayed by drawing maps showing the contours of the electron rings.

  1. Our experiment consisted of two samples of water containing unknown substances, and our objective ...

    It's better if we take the substance to the flame rather that the flame to the substance (e.g. holding and pointing the Bunsen burner towards the substance on a heat-proof mate). This is because then the experiment will be more safer as if we happen to drop the substance then

  2. Rate of reaction of different concentrations of sodium thiosulphate.

    The preliminary experiment had been done as a whole class. The preliminary experiment was done so everyone knows how to carry out each stage in the experiment. Firstly we had to layout a detailed and appropriate table to record the results in.

  1. To conjecture the structure and bonding of eight unknown solids by analysis of experimentally ...

    0.05Amp A Table to Show the Conductivity of Each Substance in Aqueous Solution: Unknown Substance (A-H) Conductive Reading Uncertainty A Yes 30.0mA ? 0.5mA B N/A* N/A N/A C Yes 1.00mA ? 0.5mA D No N/A N/A E No N/A N/A F Yes 145mA ?

  2. Identification of an unknown compound.

    not provide: * Details on the number of carbon atoms in the carbon chain * Position of functional group in the molecule * Whether the compound is aromatic or aliphatic. The evidence from the chemical tests show that compound B is an aldehyde, for example, no decolourisation of bromine water

  1. Antimatter and matter

    The discovery of anti-matter has given us the ability to see organs inside the body such as the brain, using positron emission tomography (PET). This is dealt with in the `anti-matter` poster, where the female character poses confidently between two anti-particles, which would normally annihilate in less than a blink of an eye.

  2. Variability of Relative Stability of Oxidation States.

    Because it is dependent of the forms of crystals. Diamond is an atomic crystal, whereas the graphite is the molecular crystal. Silicon reacts with oxygen then generates the SiO2. Here Si has the +4 oxidation state and this compound is absolutely stable as it is an atomic crystal.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work