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Bonding Practical

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Bonding Practical In this assessed practical I was given 8 different unknown compounds and had to do a series of tests on them to determine what the most likely type of bonding present in them. There was at least one compound from each of the following groups: * Small covalent * Giant covalent * Covalent polymeric * Ionic * Ionic with water of crystallisation As well as these I will be testing to try and determine what intermolecular forces are present in the compounds, especially in the case of the small covalent ones. The bonding in compounds affects the properties of that specific compound. Here are the examples for the 5 different types of bonding above: Small Covalent - have relatively high boiling points and do not conduct electricity. If a liquid it must be a small covalent compound. Giant Covalent - very high boiling points and do not conduct electricity. Are also very large compounds. Covalent Polymeric - low boiling point and do not conduct electricity. These are very stretchy compounds because they are made up of chains of atoms bonded together by Van der Waal's forces. These are weak so become easily untangled, this is why they are stretchy. ...read more.


In some substances I presume that there will be clear electrolysis e.g. bubbles gathering around the cathode. If there is not clear electrolysis a multimeter will be included in the circuit so that you can clearly see whether electricity is being conducted across the mixture. For this experiment you would need to use a lab pack, crocodile clip leads, a multimeter and two electrodes. Here is a diagram to help explain the experiment: When evaporated is a solid left The clearest way to see if a compound is Ionic with water of crystallisation this experiment is used. If you put some of the substance onto a nickel tray and place over a Bunsen burner, when it is melted and evaporates a solid is left behind. For this you would need exactly the same equipment as the boiling point one. High boiling point To test for a high boiling point I will put a small amount of the substance on a nickel dish and place it over a Bunsen burner. If the compound burns very quickly it will be clear that it does not have a high boiling point. If it does not burn straight away it will have one. ...read more.


Here is more about these two types of intermolecular forces. Hydrogen Bonds For Hydrogen bonds to exist one molecule must be a delta positive Hydrogen atom and the other must be a Fluorine, Oxygen or Nitrogen atom. To get a delta positive Hydrogen atom, you have to have the Hydrogen bonded to something that the electrons would rather spend more of their time around that, for example Oxygen in H2O. Hydrogen bonds are a kind of dipole/dipole interaction between the two atoms. Here is a diagram that shows this more clearly. Van der Waal's forces This is when there is uneven distribution of the electrons across the atom. This only happens by chance but still sets up a polarity in the atom. This will then set up a similar polarity in the neighbouring atoms. Here is a diagram that will explain this well: To test for the different intermolecular forces I will be using Cyclohexane, Ethanol and Propanone. I will add these to the solution I made to test the conductivity and use a thermometer to see whether the temperature went up, down or stayed the same. This will tell me what intermolecular forces are present in the compounds. I will only be testing the compounds that are Small Covalent because these are the only ones that have intermolecular forces. Will Shearsby ...read more.

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