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Bones - What makes up the basic human skeletal system?

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Introduction

BONES This report addresses the big question 'What makes up the basic human skeletal system?". In order to answer this, the smaller questions 'What are bones made up of', 'What are the different types of bones?', 'How are bones joined together?', 'What are some of the most common injuries, breakages and diseases?' and finally 'How are these conditions treated?' need to be answered. WHAT MAKES UP THE BASIC HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM? The definition if bone is 'any of the various structures which make up the skeleton in most vertebrates'. The human skeleton is framework that holds up the entire body; there are 206 bones that make up the average human. Bones are living tissue. Babies are born with 300 bones and their skulls are separated at birth; during childhood both the skull and bones gradually join together. Any excess bones that didn't join together properly are called accessory bones, they are most commonly found in the feet. Joins in the skull are called sutures, small accessory bones called sutural bones may be found in between the joints. Some of the bones in the body are made up of smaller bones that have joined together over time. 3/4 of bone material is made up of minerals such as zinc, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. ...read more.

Middle

When outside forces apply pressure to the bones, they sometimes can't handle that pressure; this is when fractures occur. Fractures, breakages and cracks are all the same thing; no one is worse then the other. Broken bones hurt for many reasons for example irritated nerve endings, swelling and surrounding muscles going into spasm. Fractures can occur because of direct impact, twisting or falls. All these factors influence what type of injury occurs. They can be either open or closed, open being if the skin over the break is disrupted and close being if the skin isn't disrupted. A lot of the time open fractures need an anesthetic or surgery in order to fix the break. Common sites for fractures include the wrist, ankle and hip. Hip fractures mostly occur in elderly people. On average a broken bone takes 4-8 weeks to heal depending on other influential factors. There are many different types of breaks as illustrated here. Rib fractures are common injuries and are prone to breaking due to direct impact. Chest x-rays are usually taken to make certain that the lungs haven't collapsed or bruised. If left untreated rib fractures can make a person susceptible to pneumonia due to difficulty breathing. Skill fractures are also a common injury but they take a significant force to cause breakage. ...read more.

Conclusion

In extreme cases joint replacement surgery may be needed. Research shows that diets high in marine oils (eg. Salmon, tuna) reduce the inflammation of joint conditions such as arthritis. Exercise has also reduced pain in many cases. In conclusion the skeletal system is a major part of the human body; it is made up of, on average 206 bones. A bone has 4 main parts which make up its structure, the periosteum, cortical bone, cancellous bone and the bone marrow. There are 5 different types of bones, long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid and many different categories which bones fall into. The most common joints are synovial joints and there are 6 different types; hinge, pivot, ball and socket, saddle, condyloid and gliding. There are 6 main types of breakages; greenstick, spiral, comminuted, transverse, compound and vertebral compression. The most common breakages occur in the wrist, ankle and hip. They're mostly repaired through casts, splints or surgery. The top 3 bone diseases are osteoporosis, Paget's disease and arthritis; they are treated through various forms of medication and surgeries. The main way to prevent further advancement of these diseases is to maintain suitable calcium and vitamin D levels and exercise regularly. The human skeletal system is a complex and interesting subject to look into; bones will keep growing and the people studying it will develop better technology to study the skeletal system in more detail. ...read more.

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