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Bradfield Woods as an example of a woodland habitat.

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Introduction

Bradfield Woods Ok, this topic is terrifyingly dull and stupid, but you do need to do it. In the syllabus it says we need to describe the management of woodland habitat and Bradfield Woods is an example of a woodland habitat. Bradfield Woods is a National Nature Reserve in East Anglia. It has an area of about 68 hectares and is surrounded by arable farmland. Over the last hundred years the size of the woodland has dwindled. The area was saved by a group of people in the 1970s (hippies??) who saw its potential as a conservation area and today the woodland has a larger biodiversity and is enjoyed by many visitors. In 19994 Bradfield Woods was declared a National Nature Reserve. The wooded areas are laid out in blocks or fells and the coppicing or cutting of woody species takes place in these blocks. Coppicing is a method of woodland management where at regular certain tree species are cut down near to ground level. New shoots grow out from the stumps called stools and are allowed to grow for up to 15 years and then harvested. A few trees are allowed to grow to grow to their full size and these trees are called standards. When felled these trees provide timbre. Some stools have an estimated age of a thousand years and have a diameter of up to 6m. They have probably provided wood continuously over this period. After the coppicing of an area the blocks undergo a period of growth and provide a range of habitats and hence a diversity of species. There are for example 42 native trees and shrubs and over 350 species of flowers. If the woodland was left without any management the diversity of the woodland would gradually diminish. Use of fire Why used? * Deliberate burning used as a management tool. * In UK is practiced mainly in upland moor land communities for the sheep, deer and red grouse. ...read more.

Middle

Sheep * Bites vegetation close to the ground - maintains short, even grass cover. * This creates a habitat favoured by birds such as stone curlews, woodlarks and wheatears. * Sheep drop their dung across the area during the day. At night, dung is also deposited in specific areas. * Enriches the area with nutrients, which is deleterious to the flora. * Trampling has little effect except where soil is loose or on steep hillsides. Cattle * Wrap their tongue around the vegetation. * Compared with sheep, can consume relatively tall and coarse plants. * Resulting grass cover is made more uneven because cattle select certain patches. * Trampling is more severe, leaving hoof marks, bare soil and muddy areas if wet. Along the edge of ditches, it can increase marshy and muddy areas. * Dung is in the form of cowpats and also results in local enrichment of nutrients. * Around the cowpat is unpalatable. * However, the cowpat itself provides the opportunity for another community to be established - at least for a short time. Horses * Much more selective than sheep and cattle. * Results in fairly patchy vegetation because they may eliminate some species in an area yet ignore another. 3) Wet Grasslands * Part of traditional farming system. * In summer, the meadows are cut for hay and then used for grazing. * In winter, they are often flooded. * Expanses of open water attract range of birds - waders (such as lapwing, snipe and redshank), ducks, geese and swans. * However, prolonged flooding may have an adverse effect on vegetation and the invertebrates in the soil. * More attractive to bird life if there is variation in surface features. * Important to have plenty of 'edge' habitat and pool margins to provide suitable conditions for feeding waders and their chicks. * Improvement of wet grasslands has been undertaken to improve its agricultural potential. ...read more.

Conclusion

through revenue transfers from tourism, local job creation in the formal sector, stimulating increased productivity in the agricultural sector, and so forth. Benefit sharing is also obtainable through direct utilization of wildlife, such as harvesting quotas for the local communities and controlled culling operations. By providing such benefits, the ICDPs aspire to stimulate the local people to reduce wildlife exploitation. EU Legislation on Conservation Background * Conservation policy in the EU is based on 2 main pieces of legislation: the Birds Directive and the Habitats Directive. * The EU Birds Directive, passed in 1979, covers the protection, management and control of birds in the wild in the EU * The EU Habitats Directive, passed in 1992, is concerned with the conservation of natural habitats and the integration of conservation into other EU policies The EU Habitats Directive * The main aim of the directive is "to promote the maintenance of biodiversity, taking account of economic, social, cultural and regional requirement" * This directive recognises the fact that wild species of plants and animals are threatened by the deterioration of habitats in the EU as the result of human activities * It recognises the need for "sustainable development" * Annex I of the directive lists the types of habitat which need to be conserved and states that special areas of conservation should be identified e.g. coastal habitats coastal sand dune freshwater habitats temperate heath and scrub grassland raised bogs, mires and fens rocky habitats e.g. screes and caves forests * All EU member states are expected designate these special areas in their own countries Natura 2000 * Annex II of the directive contains an extensive list of animals and plants, which are considered endangered, rare, or warranting special attention * EU member states are required to create special areas of conservation in regions containing any of the organisms listed * The aim is to create a European network of these sites, called Natura 2000 * Governments have to introduce conservation measures to maintain biodiversity in these areas ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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