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Burning Fuels Investigation.

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Introduction

Chemistry coursework: Burning Fuels Investigation Aim: To find out how much energy is released by each alcohol per gram (g). Research: Alcohols are organic, and each one has its own formula. In this experiment we have used Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol, Pentanol Hexanol, Heptenol, and Octanol. Alcohols react with oxygen in the air to form water and carbon dioxide. The reaction that is involved in burning alcohols is exothermic because heat is given out. Form this reason the reactant energy is higher than that of the product. Ethanol, (C2H5OH) Propanol, (C3H7OH) Butanol, (C4H9OH) Pentanol, (C5H11OH) Hexanol, (C6H13OH) Heptanol, (C7H15OH) Octanol, (C8H17OH) When these alcohols are burnt they show a trend that the fewer the bonds the less energy is released, so the more bonds the more energy is released. Alcohols are good to use in this experiment because they burn easily and all have simular chemical formulas. The equation to work out the energy released per gram is: Mass of water X 4.2 X change in temperature of water Change in mass of fuel (in grams) 4.2 is the specific heat capacity of water. ...read more.

Middle

* Leave to heat up until the alcohol evaporates. * Take the temperature when the alcohol has evaporated. * Record the temperature of the water now. * Weigh alcohol * Record all results Results: Alcohol Mass of spirit buner (g) Fianl mass of spiit burner (g) Mass of alcohol burnt Temp. of water (�C) Final temp of water (�C) Temp rise in water (�C) Ethanol 229.05 228.35 0.7 24 31 7 229.75 226.75 3 23 29 6 228.75 224.90 3.85 26 33 7 Propanol 225.18 224.90 0.28 26 33 7 224.90 223.31 1.59 23 31 8 223.31 221.50 1.81 22 28 6 Butanol 227.75 227.40 0.35 23 29 6 227.32 226.75 0.57 23 30 7 225.45 225.35 0.1 21 27 6 Pentanol 227.68 226.45 1.23 24 31 7 225.20 225.32 25 29 4 225.35 Hexanol 230.18 229.39 0.79 23 29 6 229.39 228.23 1.16 23 31 8 227.33 226.52 0.81 23 28 5 Heptanol 220.54 211.06 9.48 24 31 7 220.49 210.59 9.9 24 30 6 210.09 209.90 0.19 22 25 3 Octanol 226.38 225.40 0.98 25 29 4 225.40 224.17 1.23 24 29 5 224.17 222.67 1.5 24 30 6 Alcohol Ave.mass of alcohol burnt (g) ...read more.

Conclusion

As these errors were only small, they could not have made the massive differences between the predicted results, so there must have been other factors that caused the heat from the burner not to reach the water. These could have been energy wasted on heat and light. Each of the alcohols were burnt by different groups, and each group could have done their experiment slightly different making the results different, which could have caused the results not to have come out as they were meant to. The results for heptanol came out a surprise, as the mass of alcohol burnt was far greater for two of the experiments than any of the other results. Octanol did not burn as well as expected either. The temperature variation in the water was simular for all of the results also this could be due to human error as the reading on the thermometer could have not been read in a straight line making mistakes in degrees centigrade. Even the electronic equipment could have made a difference like the time on the stopwatch, or the measuring cylinder for water, and even the temperature of the beaker. The mass balance results could have been different as the scales are very sensitive so almost anything could have changed the wieghts. ...read more.

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