• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9

Can areas where accidental contamination with petroleum products be efficiently bioremediated and which bacteria are best suited for the process?

Extracts from this document...


Extended Essay Subject: Biology Topic: Bioremediation of areas accidentally contaminated with petroleum products. Research Question: Can areas where accidental contamination with petroleum products be efficiently bioremediated and which bacteria are best suited for the process? INTRODUCTION The advent of heavy industrialization and manufacture of various chemicals has brought forth the curse of an environment polluted with potentially hazardous and toxic organic compounds. Slowly the influx of such compounds in soil, air and water is increasingly resulting into the deterioration of ecosystem. If these are not checked and controlled the entire ecosystem will be seriously damaged. The microorganisms, more specifically bacteria, are the workhorses of biotechnology and today they seem to provide many solutions to the abundant man made problems. Biotechnological answers are emerging rapidly. Today we see numerous uses of biotechnology, the possibility of treating almost all human disorders with the use of stem cells, the possibility of increasing our food production manifold and of course the ability to use a naturally occurring process, speed it up and clean the environment we ourselves have polluted. This technology is bioremediation. Bioremediation: "Remediate" means to solve a problem, and "bio-remediate" means to use biological organisms to solve an environmental problem such as contaminated soil or groundwater. In the process of bioremediation Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, cyanobacteria and enzymes produced by these microorganisms transform a toxic compound to benign or less toxic, or preferably to CO2 and water by a mechanism called "mineralisation". ...read more.


25ml of Sluphuric acid Silver Sulphate catalyst mixture was then slowly added to the flask. The flask was connected with a reflux condenser and then transferred to heating mental. The contents were refluxed for two hrs. After two hours the contents were thoroughly cooled and diluted with water. Residual dichromate was titrated using ferroin indicator against 0.1N Ammonium ferrous sulphate solution to a wine red colour end point. COD values were calculated using flowing formula. (B-S) xN of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate x 8000 COD in PPM= ml of Sample. B- Blank reading. S- Sample Reading The degradation of paraffin was judged by using growth at the junction of two liquids. Degradation of Phenol in Water. In a 1 liter working capacity reactor with aeration arrangement 900ml of water was added. Phenol solution was added so as to get a concentration of 1000ppm. Water with phenol was supplemented with urea nitrogen, buffer, calcium, Magnesium and Ferric ions. pH was maintained in neutral range. 100ml of the developed bacterial culture was added to the reactor. Reactor was then aerated continuously. Samples were collected at 24hrs interval until 96hrs. Samples were analysed for COD and residual phenols by methods as mentioned above. Table-2 shows the results. The studies were quite interesting and I wanted to carry out more work, however the experimental work requires lot of expertise and at my level it is difficult for me to do the same. ...read more.


CONCLUSIONS. In conclusion, in situ bioremediation is the application of biological treatment to the clean up of contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. During the process, microorganisms, usually bacteria and fungi, feed on the contaminants.They derive nutrition and energy for growth and reproduction. The wastes are used up or converted into a less harmful form, such as water and carbon dioxide. * Microorganisms created by microbiologists have the potential of helping cleanse the environment of men made pollutants. * The usefulness of such organisms in pollution abatement depends on compatibility with their environment. * The experimental work carried out and the results as observed showed the potential of Bacteria in clean up process. * The biodegradation of pollutants should be using Naturally occurring microorganisms. Hence one should utilize natural organisms to meet growing demands for cleaning operation in the context of an increasing environmental alert society. * The starting point for biotechnological developments is the search for and discovery of exploitable biological phenomena ; the effective planning and optimization of search & discovery programs is just as crucial as any other phase of biological operation. * We rely on microorganisms to biodegrade our waste materials. we have came to assume that anything thrown out in the environment will disappear to an incredibly large extent it is true. Microorganisms have a vast capacity for rapid degrading organic materials & thus can be relied upon to act as biological incinerators. Swapneil R. Parikh. Extended Essay. Page 1 of 9 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Living Things in their Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Living Things in their Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The effects of disinfectants and antibacterial soap on bacterial growth

    5 star(s)

    The antibacterial soap was included in our variables because we wanted to test if there was a difference between the effects of disinfectants and the effects of soaps. However, the soap was considerably thicker in consistency than the other variables. and therefore, was difficult to pipet and to transfer. Moreover.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Research question - Is using dogs for work ethical?

    5 star(s)

    I believe this because none of this benefits a human. For instance, a sniffer dog would help by saving lives from an activated bomb but a racing dog would only entertain the race watchers but tire out the dog. I think that this is cruel and psychologically wrong to the

  1. Marked by a teacher

    What is Biotechnology? Discuss the use of genetically modified microbes to make new ...

    4 star(s)

    Obviously organisms that we consume are used, e.g. cattle, but biotechnology would be an extremely limited science if it were not for microbes. Microbes include organisms such as Fungi, Bacteria and Viruses. They not only provide the foundation for much of the basic research involved in biotechnology, they help to

  2. Global Warming Essay

    were being produced by the razing and felling of tropical forests each year. This estimation is much lower than those of earlier studies, which estimated up to 2.4 billion tons annually' this shows how deforestation from humans has changed by the production of more greenhouse gases.

  1. An Investigation into the water quality of the River Banwell in

    The area is built on a marshy area so drainage is vital. (See below) Test site 4 Test site: 5 Reason for location: Again this is so I can compare concentrations and see if there is an increase between test sites 3, which is before the output and this site where I can see if there is an increase after.

  2. Students at Solano Community College often conduct studies of freshwater macroinvertebrates in Suisun Creek ...

    Conductivity is a measure of the flow of electrical current, made possible in water by ions in solution. Conductivity is sometimes used as an index of pollution. 4The measure of specific conductance is very similar to the measuring conductivity; however, the temperature was fixed at 25 degrees Celsius.

  1. Introduction to bacteria

    Bacteria associated with the human body outnumber body cells by ten to one. In addition, bacteria play important roles in the environment and industry. Bacteria and human health: We have all had bacterial diseases. Bacteria cause many cases of gastroenteritis, sometimes called stomach flu.

  2. Human activities can impose far-reaching effects on the environment

    Factors such as dose, time and duration of application play important roles in a pesticide's toxicity. Wildlife, for example, is more susceptible to pesticides effects during nesting, nursing of young or during times of low food availability. A pesticide's degree of toxicity also depends on how it is exposed to wildlife.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work