• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Carry out an experiment investigating the effect of varying acid concentration on the rate of decomposition of limestone on the exterior of the Lincoln Cathedral.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Lincoln Cathedral Investigation Planning: Aim of Investigation: To carry out an experiment investigating the effect of varying acid concentration on the rate of decomposition of limestone on the exterior of the Lincoln Cathedral. Preliminary Work: Aim: To find the most effective acid on the decomposition of limestone. Equipment: Conical flask Delivery tube Water bath Measuring cylinder Water Hydrochloric acid (50cm3) Nitric acid (50cm3) Sulphuric acid (50cm3) Limestone (3 medium sized marble chips) Stopwatch Diagram: Procedure: Medium marble chip of limestone was added to the conical flask and the inverted measuring cylinder was filled with water. It was carefully tipped into the water bath using the 'up and over' method. 50cm3 of 2M hydrochloric acid was added to the conical flask with the limestone. The delivery tube was put under the measuring cylinder and the timer was started to measure the time taken to collect 50cm3 of carbon dioxide gas. This procedure was repeated using two other acids; sulphuric and nitric. The acid that produced the fixed amount of carbon dioxide was the most effective acid on the decomposition of limestone and therefore was to be used again in the main investigation. Results: Acid Time taken to produce 50cm3 of CO2 (seconds) Hydrochloric 2M 317 Sulphuric 2M No reaction Nitric 2M 474 Conclusion: Using the results obtained from the above table, it can be deduced that hydrochloric acid has the greatest effect on the decomposition of limestone. ...read more.

Middle

x 2 = 1.6M (30/50) x 2 = 1.2M (20/50) x 2 = 0.8M (10/50) x 2 = 0.2M The reason for using five different concentrations of acid was to give a more accurate pattern of results. The range of concentrations used is 0.2M to 2M. This is sufficient since any concentrations below 0.2M will take too long to have an effect on the limestone and concentrations up to 2M will provide enough results to show the relationship between the concentration of acid and the rate of reaction. To ensure accurate and reliable results are obtained, the experiments will be repeated three times and an average of those will be taken. The results were plotted in a table and the rate of reaction was calculated using: Rate of reaction = 1/t Prediction: Using the collision theory, I predict that as the concentration of hydrochloric acid is increased, the rate of reaction between the acid and limestone will also increase. This is because increasing the concentration of acid increases the number of acid particles which can collide into the limestone so the chances of a successful collision are greater. Obtaining evidence: Results from preliminary experiment: Acid Time taken to produce 50cm3 of CO2 (seconds) Hydrochloric 2M 317 Sulphuric 2M No reaction Nitric 2M 474 As mentioned earlier, it can be deduced that hydrochloric acid has the greatest effect on the decomposition of limestone. ...read more.

Conclusion

The results obtained were reliable since the results of repeated experiments were close to those of the original tests. I used the average of the three results to obtain a more accurate pattern in my results. I feel that my results were fairly accurate, but they could have been more accurate if I had used the gas and syringe method since collecting carbon dioxide in the inverted measuring cylinder was slightly difficult and inaccurate to measure when the fixed amount of carbon dioxide was collected. Despite this, I found there were no anomalous readings in my results. This could be due to the fact that the procedure was simple and straightforward to follow. I think it would have been easier to have used a clamp stand as part of the equipment, as it would have kept our hands free, making the experiment safer. The experiment was safe to conduct since I used safety goggles to protect my eyes from the acid, and the maximum concentration of acid used was 2M, which is not very corrosive. If I were to carry out the experiment again, I would use the gas and syringe method, as although it is slightly harder to set up than the up and over method, it would give more accurate results. In addition, I would use a wider range of concentrations of acid so that any pattern that emerges will become more evident. Meena Jassal ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. Find out how the concentration of nitric acid affects the rate of reaction between ...

    10% each time by putting in by 2ml less acid each experiment, and making up the difference with water. * Do this until the experiment is completed, recording results as I go. Risk assessment: * Must wear goggles because acid can be dangerous.

  2. The aim of this experiment is to answer the following question: What is the ...

    Below shows graphs for all of the temperatures showing time from the beginning of reaction to the reaching of equilibrium. The table of results shows all of the repeats I did for all of the temperature ranges. It also shows that moles of acid in the sample. Temperature (degrees Celsius)

  1. Investigating the effect of concentration on the rateof reaction between marble chips and Hydrochloric ...

    Repetition Average Volume of gas Given off (cm�) Time (s) Repetition Average Volume of gas Given off (cm�) 1 2 3 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0.00 0 0 0 0 0.00 10 7 7 6 6.67 10 7 3 7 5.67 20 13 13 12 12.67 20

  2. The action of amylase and pectinase in varying amounts when clarifying cloudy apple juice.

    Room temperature was about ?C so I decided to use 35?C water bath because in "Molecules and Cells" by J.Adds, E.Larkcom and R.Miller it states that the optimum temperature for pectinase was 35?C however the optimum temperature for ?amylase is 95?C.

  1. The effect of Acid Rain on Seed Germination.

    After this trial experiment it is quite clear that the cress seeds in my final experiment will require plenty of water so that the seeds don't dry out, plenty of oxygen, plenty of light to keep the seeds healthy in colour and warmth to help the seeds germinate more quickly.

  2. An Investigation of the weathering of limestone.

    All the time we will start the stopwatch from the first bubble and stop it when we get to 25mils of carbon dioxide in the measuring cylinder. We will also use the same units of time each time and measure time to the nearest tenth of a second, and we

  1. concetration of limestone

    * Keep the work area safe and tidy; when equipment is no longer required, move it aside or clear it away. * Do avoid spillage; ensure the burette tap is closed before filling and use a funnel. * Remove the funnel from the burette when not in use, this could

  2. The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction.

    The graph illustrates that the 2M acid solution will produce the most amount of carbon dioxide, but as the ratio of water the hydrochloric acid increases (i.e. there is a greater volume of water to acid), less carbon dioxide would be produced.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work