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Catalase Investigation

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Introduction

Catalase; Catalase is a heamoprotein with four sub units of equal size. It has a high affinity for its substrate, Hydrogen Peroxide, which is dramatically demonstrated by the violent reaction which takes place between the two. Catalase speeds up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide, a toxic waste product of metabolic reactions. Catalase can be found in foods such as liver and potato and Catalase activity is reported in nearly all animal cells and organs and in aerobic micro-organisms. Specifically in cells it is located in the peroxisomes. These are vesicles produced by the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum. Catalase reacts with Hydrogen Peroxide, removing it from cells by producing Hydrogen and oxygen as products, via the following equation; CATALASE 2H2O2 ( ) -------------------------------------------- 2H2O (I) + O2 (g) This is an example of an anabolic reaction. Since Catalase has reacted with Hydrogen Peroxide to break it down into smaller products. Catalase can be inhibited by ascorbate alone or copper ions - Cu2+ . This is also a factor affecting the rate of reaction. Therefore from my knowledge of enzymes in general and of Catalase more specifically l have formed my hypotheses, which l will test in my investigation. ...read more.

Middle

5. Here, various vegetables and fruit were used as the source of Catalase. These were much easier to cut exact cubes from, therefore controlling the surface areas and size much more precisely. Therefore from the choices available l chose set-up number 3 since this was the most accurate apparatus with the Catalase source or potato from number 5. I then went on to use the chosen piece of apparatus for my preliminary work. The results from this experiment are shown in the following table. Results from Preliminary Work; Gas given off (cm3) Time (min) 1 2 3 4 5 Concentration (M) 1 3.5 7 9 11.5 N/A 2 5 7 9 N/A N/A 4 3.5 126 179 2,112 14.5 APPARATUS LIST; Distilled water Glass rod Side-arm boiling tube Bung Glass beaker (500 cm3) Boss and clamp stand White tile Scalpel Callipers Thermometer Stop clock Goggles Cork borer (1c diameter) Gas syringe Potato (Catalase) Hydrogen Peroxide (4m) Syringes (10 ml, 20 ml) Ruler Graduated pipette and filler DIAGRAM OF APPARATUS METHOD; Prepare the various molarities of Hydrogen Peroxide, following the instructions as shown in the table below, to produce concentrations of 0.5M, 1.0M, 1.5M, 2.0M, 2.5M, 3.0M 3.5M, and 4.0M. ...read more.

Conclusion

This was varied in order to ascertain how the concentration of the substrate effects the action of the enzyme on its substrate. Concentration of Enzyme; controlled. If the concentration of the enzyme was not controlled the volume of Catalase each molarity of H2O2 was subjected to would be different and therefore the results would be unfair. Since the more volume of the enzyme present, the faster the rate of reaction since there are more active sites to act on the substrate and break it down into products quicker. This was controlled by cutting potato cylinder with a cork borer, then measuring out five 1cm3 cylinders with callipers, a ruler and a scalpel. This was, both the volume and surface area was controlled. Source of Catalase: controlled Depending on the variety of potato, the amount of Catalase present in each cell may vary. This would then have meant that although the size and surface area of the potato cylinder had been controlled the volume of the Catalase had not. By using the same breed and crop of potato it can be assumed that they have all been subjected to the same conditions and are, therefore, similar in the volume of Catalase they contain per cell. ...read more.

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