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Cell cycle analysis

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Cell cycle analysis In 1838 Schleiden postulated that all plants are composed of cells1; then in the following year together with Theodor Schwann he formulated the cell theory of life. In 1855 Rudolf Virchow published his now-famous aphorism omnis cellula e cellula "every cell stems from another cell"2. These conclusions are thought to represent the creation of the cell theory of life. Schleiden stated that the first phase of the generation of a new cell is the formation of a crystallised nucleus. In which is a substance he called a "cytoblast", which gets progressively larger to become a new cell. Following this observation Robert Remak (1815-1865), Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) and Albert K´┐Żlliker (1817-1905) presented evidence to suggest that new cells are created as a result of "scission of pre-existing cells"3. At the time of the cell theory the cell was thought to be composed of a wall or simple membrane, and fluid called protoplasm (now known as cytoplasm) and the nucleus. Within the nucleus a number of structures (ribbons, bands and threads) were seen to appear during cell division4. As these objects could be easily stained Walther Flemming called them chromatin. Flemming observed chromatins splitting of chromatins in salamander cells. He termed this process Mitosis in 18824. Mitosis Mitosis is the process by which a cell separates its chromosomes into two new cells. ...read more.


Therefore most cells observed will be in interphase and this will take the most proportion of the 24 hour cycle. Null Hypothesis There is no difference to the time spent in each stage of the cell cycle. Each phase will have an equal proportion of time allocated to it out of a 24 hour period. Equipment The equipment used was a described in the NEC handout Method The method was conducted as described in the NEC handout Risk Assessment Risk Hazard Steps taken to prevent hazard Bunsen burner Burning hair, loose clothing, or loose accessories Do not wear any loose clothes Tie long hair back Take off any dangling accessories Leave coats at door, out of anybodies path Lab chairs and classroom equipment Risk of tripping over chairs or bags (possibly dropping lab equipment) Risk of burning paper or pencil cases etc Place chairs, far away from any ongoing experiment or anybodies path. Keep bags away from anybodies path Keep any notes or books in bags, well away from anybodies possible path Acetic orcien stain An irritant Corrosive Staining fingers or clothes Inhaling fumes, if evaporated Carcinogen Getting into eyes Wear rubber/ latex gloves Wear safety goggles, and do not attempt to touch eye Be very careful when working with chemical Try not to get onto clothing More importantly, try not to get onto bare skin Lab coats can be worn Latex ...read more.


In sum, then, interphase generally takes between 18 and 20 hours. Mitosis, during which the cell makes preparations for and completes cell division, only takes about 2 hours"9. Although the data that I have collected here is relative in each stage of the cell cycle, the actual amount of time spent in each stage is inaccurate. This inaccuracy is also increased by the absence of cells being identified as being in cytokinesis. The difference in the results could be due to inaccuracies in the experiment. The manner in which the slide produced kills the cells. This means that you are observing the cells at a static phase. Also this experiment was done in the middle of the day. No account has therefore been made for what happens at night or early morning. Therefore to ensure that the data is more accurate more experiments need to be done at different times of the day. As the cell cycle is a continuous process it is very difficult to actually identify what phase of the cell cycle a cell is in. For example when is a cell in metaphase or prophase? It is sometimes difficult to identify the end stage of each phase of the cycle. Error Cause How can it be improved How will this help How will reliability be increased Order of difficulty Tissue not dispersed enough Impatience Too dry Too wet Do not soak tissue too much Do not mash without any liquid acetic orcein. ...read more.

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