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Chemical Bonding - Ionic and covalent bonding

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Introduction

Chemical Bonding Ionic and covalent bonding Theories of chemical bonding are based on the knowledge that: 1. Metallic elements from Groups I, II, III tend to lose electrons and form positive ions that have a noble gas configuration. Na Na+ Mg Mg+ (2, 8, 1) (2, 8) (2, 8, 2) (2, 8) 2. Non-metallic elements in Groups VI and VII gain electrons top form negative ions with a noble gas configuration. ...read more.

Middle

Formation of cations is governed by ionisation energies, with Group I elements forming ions most readily and Group III elements forming ions with difficulty. Group IV elements never form ions because the ionisation energy is too great. Formation of anions is governed by electron affinities. This is the energy change involved when a mole of uni-negative ions from a mole of gaseous atoms. ...read more.

Conclusion

The two atoms come close together so that their outer orbitals overlap. Both nuclei are attracted to the shared pair of electrons and this attraction binds the atoms together. Each atom has been stabilised as it gains a full outer shell (2, 8, 8). Co-ordinate or dative covalent bonding In a normal covalent bond, each atom donates one electron to the shared pair. In a co-ordinate bond electrons come from the same atom. ...read more.

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