• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Chemical Bonding - Ionic and covalent bonding

Extracts from this document...


Chemical Bonding Ionic and covalent bonding Theories of chemical bonding are based on the knowledge that: 1. Metallic elements from Groups I, II, III tend to lose electrons and form positive ions that have a noble gas configuration. Na Na+ Mg Mg+ (2, 8, 1) (2, 8) (2, 8, 2) (2, 8) 2. Non-metallic elements in Groups VI and VII gain electrons top form negative ions with a noble gas configuration. ...read more.


Formation of cations is governed by ionisation energies, with Group I elements forming ions most readily and Group III elements forming ions with difficulty. Group IV elements never form ions because the ionisation energy is too great. Formation of anions is governed by electron affinities. This is the energy change involved when a mole of uni-negative ions from a mole of gaseous atoms. ...read more.


The two atoms come close together so that their outer orbitals overlap. Both nuclei are attracted to the shared pair of electrons and this attraction binds the atoms together. Each atom has been stabilised as it gains a full outer shell (2, 8, 8). Co-ordinate or dative covalent bonding In a normal covalent bond, each atom donates one electron to the shared pair. In a co-ordinate bond electrons come from the same atom. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Classifying Materials section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Classifying Materials essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Identifying an Ionic Compound. Objectives: To learn and test for metal ions ...

    5 star(s)

    and again no precipitate formed. This meant that my substance was not a carbonate. When testing for metal ions in my unknown substance, all the flame tests were negative as there was no change in color. When adding 0.1 mol/dm3 NaOH the unknown substance turned a light dark orange with a precipitate.

  2. Peer reviewed

    Covalent bonding

    4 star(s)

    4) Quadruple bonds, though rare, exist. Both carbon and silicon can theoretically form these; however, the formed molecules are explosively unstable. Stable quadruple bonds are observed as transition metal-metal bonds, usually between two transition metal atoms in organometallic compounds. Molybdenum and Ruthenium are the elements most commonly observed with this bonding configuration.

  1. Ionic and Covalent Bonding ...

    The electron cloud around the negative ion can be drawn towards the positive ion, therefore the electron cloud on the negative ion is polarised by the positive ion. As the size of the negative ion and the charge on the positive ion both increase and the size of the positive ions decrease, the polarisation effect increases.

  2. The Chemical Bond

    Examples of this are: H-H H-Cl F-F (The dash is to represent a bonding pair). DOUBLE COVALENT BOND A double covalent bond is two pairs of electrons being shared. Examples are: O=O C=O C=C TRIPLE COVALENT BOND A triple covalent bond is the sharing of three pairs of electrons.

  1. To conjecture the structure and bonding of eight unknown solids by analysis of experimentally ...

    0.05Amp A Table to Show the Conductivity of Each Substance in Aqueous Solution: Unknown Substance (A-H) Conductive Reading Uncertainty A Yes 30.0mA ? 0.5mA B N/A* N/A N/A C Yes 1.00mA ? 0.5mA D No N/A N/A E No N/A N/A F Yes 145mA ?

  2. Chemical Bonding.

    The non-metals form negative ions and their names en in -ide. The other elements do not form ions because their atoms would have to gain or lose several electrons, and that takes too much energy and the other atoms already have full shells.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work