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Chemical Bonding.

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Introduction

Chemical Bonding Why compounds are formed: Most elements form compounds. Except the noble gases because the noble gases have full outer shells. The atoms of all other elements have incomplete outer shells. That is why they react: By reacting with each other, atoms can obtain full outer shells and so become stable. The atoms of some elements can obtain full shells by losing or gaining electrons, when they react with other atoms. Ions: Any atom becomes an ion if it loses or gains electrons. An ion is a charged. It is charged because it contains an unequal number of protons and electrons. The Ionic Bond: When two ions have opposite charges, they attract each other. The force of attraction between them is strong. It is called an ionic bond, or sometimes an electrovalent bond. ...read more.

Middle

Compound ions: Ions formed from groups of joined atoms are called compound ions. Even though it contains more than one atom each is just one ion. The Covalent Bond: When two non-metal atoms react together, both of them need to gain electrons, to reach full shells. They manage this only by sharing electrons between them. Atoms can only share their outer electrons. Because the atoms share electrons, there is a strong force of attraction between them, holding them together. This is called a covalent bond. The bonded atoms form a molecule. A molecule is a small group of atoms which are held together by covalent bonds. Hydrogen gas is made up of hydrogen molecules, and for this reason it is called a molecular substance. When atoms share one pair of electrons its called a covalent bond but when atoms share two pairs of electrons, the bond between them is called a double covalent bond. ...read more.

Conclusion

Ionic solids conduct electricity when melted because the ions are then free to move. Molecular solids do not conduct electricity when melted because molecules are not charged. The metals and carbon: In a metal, the atoms are packed tightly together in a regular pattern. The tight packing causes outer electrons to get separated from their atoms. A metal is a lattice of ions in a sea of electrons. Metals are good conductors of electricity because the free electrons can move through the lattice, carrying charge. Diamond is a giant structure of carbon atoms. A carbon atom forms covalent bonds to four others. Each outer atom then bonds to three more, and so on. Eventually millions of carbon atoms are bonded together, in a giant covalent structure. Diamond is very hard-the hardest substance known. This is because each atom is held in place by four strong bonds. It cannot conduct electricity, because there are no ions or free electrons in it too carry charge. ...read more.

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