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Chemistry Course Work: Combustion of Alcohols

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Introduction

CHEMISTRY COURSE WORK: COMBUESTION OF ALCOHOLS AIM: My main aim in this assignment is to investigate the combustion of at least five alcohols: Ethanol Propan-1-ol Butan-1-ol Pentan-1-ol Hexan-1-ol In this investigation we will also concentrate on how much energy is exerted when burning these alcohols we will also compare the Molar Heat of Combustion. Alcohols are also known as "A series of organic homologous compounds with a general formula 'Cn H2n + 1 OH' " Alcohols also burn in air where they react with Oxygen (O) to form the products of Water (H20) and Carbon Dioxide (Co2). "Cn H2n + 1OH + (n+n/2)-1O2 ? nH2O + nCO2" The reaction that takes place when alcohols are burnt is 'Exothermic' as heat is being given out; also the Reactant energy is higher than that of the Product. APPARATUS: Copper Can, (Calorimeter) Spirit Burner, Stand, Boss and Clamp with Wide Jaws, Measuring Cylinder (100 cm3), Thermometer (-100c to +1100c), Balance, Spirits: Ethanol, Propan-1-ol, Butan-1-ol, Pentan-1-ol, Hexan-1-ol, 100 cm3 of Water (H2O). Weighing scale (g) PLANNING: To actually help me make a proper plan and assessment of this investigation I will need to research mainly up on 'Combustion of Alcohols' and matters relating to it. The data obtained and collected shall hopefully help me make a sound and stable prediction; this can also assist me in making a simple, fair and safe test. Most of the aid will also come from the 'Preliminary Work' and 'Experiment' in which I will have the opportunity to get a better understanding of the aim in this experiment. The preliminary experiments that will be carried out will mainly involve us comparing two types of spirits being: Methylated Spirits, and Propanone. HYPOTHESIS: Alcohols differ from other organic compounds as their molecules are based on chains of Carbon atoms. Alcohol molecules contain 1 oxygen atom that is joined to a carbon atom; these two atoms are joined simply by a single bond. ...read more.

Middle

but I can reduce the amount of heat loss from the spirit burner by placing a hard board draught excluder around the experiment. During my Preliminary Work there were certain problems that I had come across such as 'Heat Loss', to avoid these problems again in the actual experiment I have taken certain measures, which hopefully will help me in obtaining sound and reliable data. As stated earlier in this experiment I will be using the following alcohols: Hexan-1-ol (C6H13OH) Pentan-1-ol (C5H11OH) Butan-1-ol (C4H9OH) Propan-1-ol (C3H7OH) Ethanol (C2H5OH) If I can at the end of my experiment after taking one set of readings for every alcohol, I shall try to take repeat readings for at least 1 alcohol if not for all. Whilst carrying out the Preliminary Work I did not time the experiment though this experiment will be timed, after a certain amount of time I shall stop taking readings for one type of alcohol and change to another thus I decided the time span at which I shall stop taking the readings for every range of alcohol will be 5 minutes. I will a APPARATUS Copper Can, (Calorimeter) Spirit Burner, Stand, Boss and Clamp with Wide Jaws, Measuring Cylinder (100 cm3), Thermometer (-100c to +1100c), Spirits: Ethanol, Propan-1-ol, Butan-1-ol, Pentan-1-ol, Hexan-1-ol, 100 cm3 of Water (H2O), Weighing scale (g), Stop Watch, Hard Board Draught Excluder, Bellow is a step-by-step procedure of what I did in the experiment: I firstly begun by collecting the required apparatus and setting it out for the experiment, I then measured 100 cm3 of water in the Measuring Cylinder from which I then poured into the Calorimeter, Then took the alcohol which I'd be using and weighed the initial mass in grams and took down the data, I also then took the initial temperature of the water and wrote down the result, Later I clamped the Calorimeter and made certain that the distance between the Wick of the Spirit Burner was 5 cm from the Calorimeter, I then ...read more.

Conclusion

but anomalous results still are produced. The procedure is suitiable to use. In my opinion it is possible to get good concrete results as I. I think that the way the pointer was placed is what may have cost my anomoulas result in places. A few changes can be made to make this expeiment to be more accurate and reliable and that is to use equipment to measure out the length of the wire rather then by hand.as our vision is not good enough to get the measurement 100% right also when the pointer is placed on the wire it could have jerked slightly away from the measurement without notice. My resuls in my opinion are anomonous or at least some even tough I did the experiment again I reproduced the same results but still the prefect sraight line waas not produced. I look at the results from scientific point of view: if you produce the same results twice that means the results are reliable. The results do support a firm conculsion and my prediction as the resistance increases when the length does and the fact a straight line is made and the line goes through the original means the length and resistance are poportional to each other. To make improvements to my experiment I would use newer equipment especially the voltmeter as It did tend to flicker to and fro numbers when trying to find the voltage. I could next time use a ohmmeter to produce the exact resistance I would find a mechanism to locate the measurement of the wire as the rulers used are not exact, and it is difficult to get an accurate reading of length by eye vision, as the wire might not be completely straight, it may be of different thicknesses throughout the length. I would also investigate other factors, such as temperature, voltage and current, and see how these effect the resistance. I would also do the experiments under different conditions such as temperature and pressure to see if it makes any difference to resistance. ...read more.

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