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chemistry coursework rate of reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The effect of changing the concentration on the rate of a reaction Research There are 4 ways to alter a reaction: * Surface area- If you break 1 chunk of a solid into smaller particles it will have a larger surface area, this larger surface area will allow more collisions to occur; therefore speeding up the reaction. * Concentration In order for any reaction to happen, those particles must first collide. This is true whether both particles are in solution, or whether one is in solution and the other a solid. If the concentration is higher, the chances of collision are greater. * Temperature When a reaction is heated the atoms are given more energy, therefore move faster. This will make more collisions speeding up the reaction * Catalyst A catalyst provides an alternative route with a lower activation energy. Using less energy means there will more collisions and quicker. Introduction By looking at the variables from my research I have come to the conclusion that I cannot use a catalyst; as it would be too difficult to find the correct one, and surface area because they are both liquids. So I was left with concentration and temperature. ...read more.

Middle

I'm planning to do 2 of each concentration as it will make it fair, and If both aren't with in 5 seconds I will repeat. I will pour from a beaker, the appropriate amount of sodium thiosulphate for the concentration(see observation table) and mix it with the right amount of distilled water in the larger measuring cylinder. I would then pour the solution of sodium thiosulphate and distilled water into the beaker over the cross. Then I would pour, into a smaller measuring cylinder 5cm3 of hydrochloric acid. I do it in a second measuring cylinder to avoid contamination. I then add this to the solution of sodium thiosulphate and my partner starts the clock. I watch until the black cross is completely obscured by a yellow precipitate of sodium then stop the clock and record the time in a table like the one below. Table Temperature Sodium thiosulphate Distilled water Concentration % Hydrochloric acid Time taken Rate of reaction (average) 50 0 100 5 40 10 80 5 30 20 60 5 20 30 40 5 10 40 20 5 Observations of preliminary work Temperature Sodium thiosulphate (Cm3) Distilled water (Cm3) Concentration (%) Hydrochloric acid (Cm3) Time taken (s) ...read more.

Conclusion

I will then rinse then start again. Observations Temperature Sodium thiosulphate (Cm3) Distilled water (Cm3) Concentration (%) Hydrochloric acid (Cm3) Time taken (s) Rate of reaction X 10-3 20 50 0 100 5 30.01 33 20 32.45 31 20 40 10 80 5 38.72 26 20 39.66 25 20 30 20 60 5 57.16 17 20 59.28 17 20 20 30 40 5 101.69 9.8 20 98.31 10 20 10 40 20 5 241.67 4.1 20 246.24 4 Secondary data Temperature Sodium thiosulphate (Cm3) Distilled water (Cm3) Concentration (%) Hydrochloric acid (Cm3) Time taken (s) Rate of reaction X 10-3 20 50 0 100 5 20 20 40 10 80 5 20 20 30 20 60 5 20 20 20 30 40 5 20 20 10 40 20 5 20 At the beginning of the reaction, the cross can be seen easily. As the flask becomes more and more cloudy the cross gets harder to see. The investigation could have been improved by testing the percentages imbetween, say 10% 30% etc. also the reaction could be tested more accurately if a light sensor was placed under the flask, instead of a cross. The sensor would be attached to the computer and would be very accurate at telling when no light can pass through ?? ?? ?? ?? Oli Harwood ...read more.

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