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Chemistry Coursework - rate of reaction

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Introduction

Science Coursework The speed of a chemical reaction is known as the rate of reaction. Rate is measured in two ways: measuring how much reactant is used up or how much product is produced in a certain amount of time. The rate of reaction is often shown in graph form due to the fact that the graph can be used to measure the rate at any given time. For example: CaCO3 + HCl --> CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 We can measure either how quickly CaCO3 or HCl is used up, or measure how much CO2 or CaCl2 is produced. The graph would then be as follows: The collision theory is the simple notion of particles of a substance having to crash together, therefore the name collision. The more collisions between particles in a given time, the faster the reaction. Rate of reaction can be affected in different ways. Increasing of the surface area can increase the rate of reaction. There is a greater area for the particles to collide in. Therefore, the more particles colliding, the faster the reaction. As the concentration is increased, the rate of reaction also increases. Greater concentration means more particles, therefore resulting in there being more of a chance of collisions colliding frequently in the same volume. Another way of increasing the rate of reactions is by making the temperature warmer. ...read more.

Middle

Furthermore, I will conduct the experiment at an additional temperature of 80?C instead of just stopping at 70?C. Method 1. Measure 10 ml of Hydrochloric Acid and 25 ml of Sodium Thiosulphate. Use pipettes for accuracy. 2. Pour each solution into a test tube and place a thermometer in to each test tube. 3. Set up water bath and place test tubes into it. Check that temperature of both the solutions is at 20?C, then remove from beaker and pour the solutions one after the other into conical flask, which should be placed on top of an A5 piece of paper with a cross. Start stopwatch as soon as the second solution is poured. 4. Keep watch over solution. As soon as mixture clouds and the cross is not visible, stop the timer immediately. Record time taken for the reaction to happen in a table. 5. Wash all equipment used. Repeat the experiment at same temperature (20?C) each time recording the results. Wash all equipment after every test. 6. At a temperature of 30?, repeat test again 3 times. 7. Then again at temperatures of 40?C, 50?C, 60?C, 70?C and finally 80?C do the test again. Repeat each temperature thrice. Record all results in table. Apparatus * Hydrochloric Acid * Sodium Thiosulphate * 2 test tubes * 10 ml measuring cylinder * 15 ml measuring cylinder * 2 pipettes * Stopwatch * Conical flask * Beaker * Kettle * A5 piece of paper with cross drawn on * 2 thermometers Variables Time taken for each test (control) ...read more.

Conclusion

However, it could also have been that the acid solutions used were contaminated at any point during the investigation. To improve the results, a graduated pipette could have been used for more accuracy in measuring the solutions. This would have allowed me to specify an amount, and have the exact number given out, rather than letting inaccuracy ruin the results. In addition to that, a water bath could have been used for more precise temperatures and would also have proved to be more easy and efficient to use rather than having to dunk test tubes in and out of a beaker. If these suggestions would be used in another experiment, I would have used the same method as before, only in the water bath suggestion, I would have set the temperatures from before instead of having to warm up water again and again. An extension to the investigation could have been that in addition to using the temperatures used, cold temperatures could also have been used to give a more variety of results. This could have been put into practice using an ice- bath, but with the same method as before, using cold temperatures as well as warm. Also, the rate of reaction on other acids could have been done with the two acids already used. I may have added Sulphuric Acid in with the two solutions already used, thus providing a different reaction. Time taken at different temperatures for HCl and Na2S2O3 to cloud completely Rate (1/Average time) ?? ?? ?? ?? Zaynab Kazi 1 ...read more.

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