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Chemistry Coursework Rates of Reaction Investigation

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework Rates of Reaction Investigation This investigation is based upon the theories of rates of reactions. The RATE OF REACTION is HOW FAST the reaction is. Reactions work at both slow and fast rates and the one I will be testing is an example of a fast reaction. 2HCL + Mg MgCl 2 + H2 In my experiment I intend to investigate the effect of both concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction. From the results acquired I intend to come up with a practical value for the activation energy ( EA ) and deduce a possible order of reaction with respect to [HCL]. Knowing that generally a 10K rise will cause the rate to double I'm going to try and get practical evidence of this. As we know, an increase in both temperature and concentration ( there are other affecting elements which could be investigated) will increase the rate of reaction by a given amount. The COLLISION THEORY and the TRANSITION STATE THEORY support these 'beliefs'. The Collision theory states that a collision must occur between two molecules A and B ( HCL and Mg) ...read more.

Middle

If two molecules collide with less energy than EA they cannot react. In an exothermic reaction, a small amount of energy has to be supplied to start the reaction even though energy is given out in the end . therefore by raising the temperature, more molecules in the system will have the same energy as EA or higher meaning that more molecules are likely to react. This particular investigation aims to investigate the effect of temperature and concentration on the rate of reaction. It's known that small changes in temperature can produce large changes in rate. As I mentioned before, for every 10K rise in temperature the rate of reaction doubles. Temperature is a measure of the average speed of molecules. Molecules in a solution do not all have the same speed. Their speeds and therefore energies are distributed according to the Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution: a few having low speeds, a few having high speeds and most somewhere in the middle. This is shown in the graph. As I mentioned before, reactions can only take place if the molecules have enough energy to start bond breaking ( activation energy). ...read more.

Conclusion

The other variable I will be testing is concentration. By varying the concentration I hope to deduce an order of reaction with respect to [HCL]. The reaction of hydrochloric acid with magnesium metal is one that can be easily tested under the given laboratory conditions. The acid reacts with the metal to give off hydrogen gas: 2HCL + Mg MgCl2 + H2 This reaction needs to be carried out in such a way that the results allow me to identify a possible order of reaction and a value for the activation energy. There are two practical methods for carrying out this experiment that I would like to test: * Gas production * Mass change Both of these methods allow me to work out a rate of reaction. In the given reaction, it is possible to follow it, by measuring the volume of hydrogen gas evolved at any time. I plan to test this method and compare the accuracy of results with those acquired using the mass change procedure. Before starting the actual practical I need to decide which concentrations of HCL I intend to use. I am going to test five different concentrations of HCL: 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 mol. ...read more.

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