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Chemistry Coursework: Rates of Reaction

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Introduction

Chemistry Coursework: Rates of Reaction By Robert Stokoe -11CJ November 2001 PLAN Aim The aim of my investigation will be to explore the effects that the concentration of hydrochloric acid will have on the amount of carbon dioxide produced when it reacts with calcium carbonate. The reaction rates will tell me how fast the chemicals are reacting with one another. I must consider the factors that may affect my testing. Background Information / Fair test I will take the necessary steps to keep the room temperature at a constant level. I want keep this at a constant because I know that all molecules are affected by changes in temperature. When temperature is increased it gives the molecules more energy and they move around a lot faster. There is always a drastic increase in movement of the molecules that are given more energy. When the temperature is increased by 10 degrees Kelvin it causes the temperature to double, when increased by 20 degrees it quadruples. The increase in temperature will not only make reactions occur faster but make them more violent as the molecules have extra energy to dispose of. (See figure 1 for further information). I will keep the room temperature constant by performing my experiments in a laboratory with air conditioning. I will take the necessary precautions to keep the surface area of the pieces of marble approximately the same. ...read more.

Middle

* The first test that I will perform is with the solution that will be composed of 25 cm cubed of water and no acid. I will do this so that if the water flows over the sides nothing will be damaged and the chances of accidents will be reduced to a minimum. * I will make sure that all liquids are kept away from electrical supplies and ensure that electrical outlets are not turned on before I begin my experiment. Method To begin with I will perform the control for my experiment to ensure that there are no impurities in the distilled water that would cause the marble chips to react or act as a catalyst for the solution. When actually doing the experiment I will begin by measuring the solution to these quantities (see the table for quantities about concentrations). This table represents how I will collect my results. Time Concentrations 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 20 30 40 ... The solution will be partially administered using the pipette to improve the accuracy of my measurements. The concentration of the acid in the solution will be reduced if I add more distilled water. I will measure the marble chips to a weight of 5 grams. I will use the smallest chips I can find as there are likely to be more of a similar size and it will enable me to improve my accuracy when weighing on a balance that measures to two decimal places. ...read more.

Conclusion

I think the information is good enough to support my prediction as it proves most of the points I made. The anomalous results I got in most of the cases had extremes at either end of the middle value. Therefore these values equaled out to form a better average than most other results. Before I did the experiments I predicted that the greater the concentration of hydrochloric acid was the quicker the carbon dioxide would be produced. This was completely correct because what I predicted would happen occurred. At this point I am able to answer my main hypothesis, which was how does changing the concentration of acid affect the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate? The answer to this would be that by changing the concentration of the hydrochloric acid it will either make the rate of reaction slower or quicker and more or less gas would be produced depending on whether the concentrations were more or less. The further work I can suggest for this type of experiment is to experiment with different temperatures, different pH of acid, and different types of acid or even mixing the acid to see which combination produces the most carbon dioxide. Table to explain the different acid concentrations: Number Volume of acid cm cubed Volume of water cm cubed 1 0 (Control) 25 2 5 20 3 10 15 4 15 10 5 20 5 6 25 0 ...read more.

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