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Chemistry Lab The effects of heating different substances

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Introduction

Title- The effects of heating different substances Introduction- In this exercise, it was required to observe carefully what happened when certain substances were heated in a burner, and to note the appearance of the residue after heating. Aim-To observe the effects of heating different substances. Apparatus-5 test tubes, powdered samples of 1) Lead (II) nitrate. 2) Copper (II) sulphate.5water. 3) Ammonium Chloride. 4) Zinc sulphate. 5) Basic copper (II) carbonate, blue and red litmus paper, splint, Bunsen burner, distilled water, spatula, tweezers and tongs. Method- 1. A spatula was used to place 1g of ammonium chloride into a test tube. ...read more.

Middle

Observations relating to the red and blue litmus and the glowing splint were then recorded. 8. Steps 1-7 was then repeated using the 4 other substances and lead (II) nitrate was heated in a controlled environment. Observations- Substance Heated Observations made upon heating Effects of gasses evolved on Blue litmus Red litmus Glowing splint Zinc Sulphate -Bubbled while heating -No colour change Yes No No Ammonium Chloride -Powder hardened -Gave off a pungent smell -No colour change Yes No No Cupric Carbonate -Changed from green to black -Crystals floated upon heating -Water droplets formed Yes No No Lead(II) Nitrate -Changed from white to orange -Bubbled before turning to a gas Yes No Yes Copper(II) ...read more.

Conclusion

The only solid that gave off oxygen while heating was the lead(II) nitrate this was proven when the glowing splint relit when it was placed inside the test tube. The solids that gave off and acidic gas upon heating was Zinc sulphate, ammonium chloride, lead(II) nitrate, copper (II) sulphate and cupric carbonate. Sources of error-the blue litmus paper turned red when it was set down on the table so more litmus paper hat to be moistened before continuing. Conclusion-after completing this experiment the chemical equations for what took place was found and they are: 1. Ammonium Chloride- NH4Cl(s) --------> NH3(g) + HCl(aq) 2. Lead (II) Nitrate- 2Pb(NO3)2(s) --------->2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g) 3. Cupric Carbonate- CuCo3(s) -----------> CuO(s) + CO2(g) 4. Copper (II) Sulphate- CuSO4.5H2O(s) --------> CuSO4(s) + 5H2O(l) 5. Zinc Sulphate- ZnSO4(s) -------------> ?? ?? ?? ?? Varij Gosine ...read more.

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