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Chemistry Research Project - Salts

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´╗┐Chemistry Project ? Salts Introduction There are three main ways of preparing salts, which are: 1. Precipitation 2. Neutralisation by excess of metal, base or carbonate 3. Titration The methods are summarised in the flow chart below: I. What is a salt? There are various definitions including: 1. An ionic compound that can be made by replacing one or more of the hydrogen ions of an acid with another positive ion. 2. Compound formed when an acid reacts with a base, metal or carbonate consisting of a metal cation ionically bonded to a non ? metal anion. II. Method 1 ? Precipitation 1. Only method to prepare insoluble salts 1. Both reagents are in an aqueous solution Method ? 1. Mix the reagents needed to prepare the salt. Ex. ? to prepare lead(ii) sulphate the starting ingredients could be lead(ii) ...read more.


1. This ensures that all acid has been neutralised and thus it won?t contaminate the solution. 1. Filter off the excess base, metal or carbonate. 2. Heat the filtrate till the crystallisation point is reached. This can be checked for by dipping a glass rod into the solution. If it is saturated enough salt crystals would start forming around it. 1. Don?t heat to dryness since then the water of crystallisation will be lost and proper crystals won?t form. 1. Let the saturated solution to cool slowly. Once crystals are formed dry them between pieces of filter paper. IV. Method 3 ? Titration 1. To prepare a soluble salt 2. Both the reagents are also soluble 3. Especially useful for preparing Na, K etc. salts Method ? 1. Run a titration of the two reagents, one is in a conical flask, the other in a burette suspended above the conical flask. ...read more.


Chloride, FeCl2 Faint Green Soluble Iron(iii) Iodide, FeI3 Yellow Green Insoluble Sodium Bicarbonate, NaHCO3 White Soluble Silver Bromide, AgBr Pale Yellow Insoluble VI. Commercial Uses of Salts 1. Ammonium Nitrate ? 1. Used as fertiliser 2. Manufacture of explosives 3. Manufacture of instant cool packs 1. Sodium Chloride ? 1. Table Salt 2. De ? icing roads 3. Important component of drilling fluid 1. Copper(ii) Sulphate 1. Organic Synthesis 2. Copper Plating 3. Etching zinc plates 1. Iron(ii) Sulphate 1. Treat Iron deficiencies 2. Manufacture of ink 3. Used in horticulture 1. Zinc Sulphate 1. Treating zinc deficiencies 2. Treating acne 3. Potential use as an alternative ADHD medication Salt Preparation Soluble Salt Insoluble Salt Precipitation Soluble Reactants Insoluble Reactants Titration Neutralisation Examples NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) = NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) NaOH(aq) + HNO3(aq) = NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l) Examples MgO(s) + H2SO4(aq) = MgSO4(aq) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq) + Zn(s) = ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g) Examples KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) = PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) Pb(NO3)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) = PbSO4(s) + 2HNO3(aq) of ...read more.

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