• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Chemistry revision - atoms,rocks and metals

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Chemistry Revision C1 1.1 - Fundamental Ideas Atoms, elements and compounds All substances are made of atoms. Elements are made of only one type of atom. Chemical symbols are used to represent atoms. Compounds contain more than one element. Atomic Structure The nucleus of an atom is made of protons and neutrons. Protons have a positive charge, electrons have a negative charge and neutrons are not charged. The atomic number (or proton number) of an element is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of its atoms. Elements are arranged in order of their atomic numbers in the periodic table. The mass number is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. The arrangement of electrons in atoms The atoms of the unreactive noble gases all have very stable arrangements of electrons. Electrons in atoms are in energy levels that can be represented by shells. Electrons in the lowest energy level are in the shell closest to the nucleus. Electrons occupy the lowest energy levels first. All the elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their highest energy level (outer shell). ...read more.


Concrete is made by mixing aggregate with cement, sand and water. Limestone Issues There are good and bad points about quarrying for limestone. Limestone, cement and concrete are needed as building materials. Quarrying and processing limestone and its products have negative impacts on the environment. ________________ C1 1.3 - Metals and their uses Extracting Metals Metals are usually found in the Earth?s crust. They are combined chemically with other elements such as oxygen. An ore contains enough metal to make it worth extracting the metal. The method we use to extract a metal depends on its reactivity. Unreactive metals are found in the Earth as the metal. The oxides of metals less reactive than carbon can be reduced using carbon. Irons and Steels Iron oxide is reduced in a blast furnace to make iron. Iron from the blast furnace is too brittle and hard and so it only has few uses as cast iron. Most iron is converted into alloys called steels. Steels contain carefully controlled quantities of carbon and other elements. Aluminium and Titanium Aluminium and titanium resist corrosion. They also have low densities compared with other strong metals. ...read more.


Useful Metals Elements from the central block of the periodic table are known as the transition metals. They are all metals that have similar properties; they are all good conductors of heat and electricity. Many of the metals from this particular section are strong, but are able to be bent or hammered into shape. These properties make them useful as materials for building, vehicles, containers, pipes and wires. Copper is another well-known useful metal; it is a very good conductor of heat and does not react with water. It can be bent but it is hard enough to keep its shape. All of these properties make it useful for making pipes and tanks in water and heating systems. It is a very good conductor of electricity as well, and so is used for electrical wiring. Most of the metals we use are alloys because they are stronger; some metals in their pure form are soft and easily bent. Metallic Issues Mining for metal ores involves digging up and processing large amounts of rock. Not only can this produce large amounts of waste material, but it can affect large areas of the environment. Recycling metals saves the energy needed to extract the metal. Recycling saves resources because less ore needs to be mined. Also ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Changing Materials - The Earth and its Atmosphere section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Changing Materials - The Earth and its Atmosphere essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    What is a metal ore?

    4 star(s)

    Carbon is important in the extraction of iron. We use a giant blast furnace to get the iron from its ore. The raw materials are fed into the top of the furnace. The raw materials are: -Iron ore (mainly haematite, iron (III) oxide) the commonest iron ores are the oxides, haemite and limonite, which are found in sediments in Britain.

  2. The aim of this experiment is to determine the order of the reactivity series ...

    Repeat for Magnesium Carbonate, Zinc Carbonate, Copper Carbonate and Manganese Carbonate. ? Put results in a table and find the averages. ? Put results onto a graph and draw a line of best fit. Diagram Below is a labelled diagram of the experiment: Prediction Using my scientific knowledge I

  1. Thermal Decomposition Of Metal Carbonates

    This type of reaction is called a displacement reaction. The metal takes the place of the hydrogen in the acid, which means that hydrogen is given off. It is too dangerous to do this reaction with Potassium, sodium and calcium, because these metals violently explode when they are placed in dilute acid.

  2. Investigate the factors that affect the mass of Copper deposited on the Copper Cathode ...

    sulphate solution. As mentioned in my plan, time is one of the factors that affects the mass of copper deposited on the cathode, an experiment to investigate this factor could be as follows. The apparatus should be set up and used in the same way as when the current was

  1. Extraction of metals and Alloys.

    The burnt wood would have made the ores (copper and tin) into bronze. After the Bronze Age, coal fires were used to produce enough temperature for the extraction of iron (hence the Iron Age) The Iron Age began in Asia and Africa in 1100 B.C and in Britain in 500 B.C.

  2. Investigating how the amount of copper affects the mass of the cathode

    I should have made sure earlier that no one was sitting around the experiment whilst it was taking place so that the current would have not altered. The amount of copper that was lost from the anode and the copper that was gained from the cathode was constant.

  1. Thermal Decomposition of Metal carbonates

    Lead, copper and the least reactive metals don't react to cold water or steam. The formula for how a metal reacts with water (or steam) is: Metal + Water = Metal Hydroxide (or oxide) + Hydrogen The most violent reaction a metal can have occurs when the metal is placed in dilute acid.

  2. Extraction of Metals.

    + 2SO2(g) Then the lead oxide can be reduced to obtain the lead metal. Carbon can be used as a reducing agent as carbon is more reactive than lead. C(s) + 2PbO(s) CO2(g) + 2Pb(s) Highly reactive metals are the hardest to extract since carbon will not displace metals of higher reactivity, so electrolysis is used.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work