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Chemistry revision - atoms,rocks and metals

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´╗┐Chemistry Revision C1 1.1 - Fundamental Ideas Atoms, elements and compounds All substances are made of atoms. Elements are made of only one type of atom. Chemical symbols are used to represent atoms. Compounds contain more than one element. Atomic Structure The nucleus of an atom is made of protons and neutrons. Protons have a positive charge, electrons have a negative charge and neutrons are not charged. The atomic number (or proton number) of an element is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of its atoms. Elements are arranged in order of their atomic numbers in the periodic table. The mass number is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. The arrangement of electrons in atoms The atoms of the unreactive noble gases all have very stable arrangements of electrons. Electrons in atoms are in energy levels that can be represented by shells. Electrons in the lowest energy level are in the shell closest to the nucleus. Electrons occupy the lowest energy levels first. All the elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their highest energy level (outer shell). ...read more.


Concrete is made by mixing aggregate with cement, sand and water. Limestone Issues There are good and bad points about quarrying for limestone. Limestone, cement and concrete are needed as building materials. Quarrying and processing limestone and its products have negative impacts on the environment. ________________ C1 1.3 - Metals and their uses Extracting Metals Metals are usually found in the Earth?s crust. They are combined chemically with other elements such as oxygen. An ore contains enough metal to make it worth extracting the metal. The method we use to extract a metal depends on its reactivity. Unreactive metals are found in the Earth as the metal. The oxides of metals less reactive than carbon can be reduced using carbon. Irons and Steels Iron oxide is reduced in a blast furnace to make iron. Iron from the blast furnace is too brittle and hard and so it only has few uses as cast iron. Most iron is converted into alloys called steels. Steels contain carefully controlled quantities of carbon and other elements. Aluminium and Titanium Aluminium and titanium resist corrosion. They also have low densities compared with other strong metals. ...read more.


Useful Metals Elements from the central block of the periodic table are known as the transition metals. They are all metals that have similar properties; they are all good conductors of heat and electricity. Many of the metals from this particular section are strong, but are able to be bent or hammered into shape. These properties make them useful as materials for building, vehicles, containers, pipes and wires. Copper is another well-known useful metal; it is a very good conductor of heat and does not react with water. It can be bent but it is hard enough to keep its shape. All of these properties make it useful for making pipes and tanks in water and heating systems. It is a very good conductor of electricity as well, and so is used for electrical wiring. Most of the metals we use are alloys because they are stronger; some metals in their pure form are soft and easily bent. Metallic Issues Mining for metal ores involves digging up and processing large amounts of rock. Not only can this produce large amounts of waste material, but it can affect large areas of the environment. Recycling metals saves the energy needed to extract the metal. Recycling saves resources because less ore needs to be mined. Also ...read more.

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