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Chemistry (Salters) Skills for Chemistry: Open-Book Paper - The Periodic Table.

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Chemistry (Salters) Skills for Chemistry: Open-Book Paper The Periodic Table is a matrix in which known elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. Elements with similar properties are placed under one another in columns, of which there are 8 groups. Each group shows an order of chemical and physical properties, from group 1, to group 8. Antoine Lavoisier was the first scientist to define a chemical element, immediately upon doing so applied 33 of those known into a table for the publication of his book in 1789. Within his table, the 'elements' were grouped into four categories in relation to their chemical properties. These were: gases, metals, non-metals and earths. As technology began to develop over the years, more reliable theories were devised in order to characterise and present elements. By the early 19th century German scientist Johann Dobereiner produced his law of Triads. This was key to the development of the modern day Periodic Table. Dobereiner grouped elements based upon similarities. Taking the three elements calcium, strontium and barium, he noticed the atomic weight of strontium fell midway between that of the other two. ...read more.


The similarity between Mendeleev's prediction (of which he named eka-aluminium) and Gallium were amazing. The only property of which the Russian differed upon was its density. Mendeleev asked Lecoq to check his results again, and after further purification, matched almost exactly with his prediction. Over the next 10 years two more missing (but predicted) elements were found, both a further boost to Mendeleev's periodic table. Gallium itself is considered to be a very unusual element. Its physical properties suggest it to be that of a non-metal, and if so, very similar to that of the liquid metal mercury. Its melting point is very low (29.78�C), so in many warm climate countries, is a liquid. Scientists are yet to discover a reason for this. Because of this, and its extremely high boiling point (2403�C), Gallium has the highest liquid range of an element, though this is useful in the production of high temperature glass thermometers. Gallium, also shares with water, the property of being denser as a liquid than that of a solid, again something uncommon of a metal. ...read more.


Elements with filled shells within the nucleus are said to have 'magic numbers'. This is because they are stable against radioactive decay. Although element 113 has just been discovered, scientists note that element 114 would be the next 'magic numbered' element. This has made chemists all over, eager to synthesize this element. This is done by "firing beams of metal ions into metal targets in an attempt to persuade the nuclei to fuse together to form new elements". In an attempt to reach the 'most wanted' element, 114, the GSI center produced the UNILAC accelerator. This fired beams of relatively heavy ions towards a rotating disk of a heavy, stable element (such as lead). The UNILAC itself is a 120 m long linear accelerator, which brings the ions on track and accelerates them to 20 % of the velocity of light. This beam can also be further accelerated to help the matter (up to 90% the speed of light) in the heavy ion synchrotron (SIS). The violence, of which this is done, overcomes the natural repulsion of the nuclei and fuses together the elements to form a new element. This has successfully worked, and centers across the world have now produced the 'magical' element, 114. ...read more.

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