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Chemistry SC1 Investigation: How does the temperature affect the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid?

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Introduction

Chemistry SC1 Investigation: How does the temperature affect the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid? Skill P - Planning: Background: Sodium Thiosulphate is white solid with the chemical formula Na2S2O3. It can be made by reacting sulphur dioxide with sulphur in boiling sodium hydroxide solution. S + SO2 + 2NaOH � Na2S2O3 + H2O Hydrochloric acid is a colourless, corrosive, non-flammable liquid. Its formula is HCl. Factors that could affect the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid: * The concentration of the hydrochloric acid. If the acid has a high concentration e.g. 5moles/litre, it will react quicker than a less concentrated, more dilute acid. * The concentration of the sodium thiosulphate will also affect the rate of reaction in the same way. * The temperature of the sodium thiosulphate, thus the temperature the reaction will take place at, will affect the rate of the reaction. At lower temperatures, the reaction will take a long time, as little heat energy is available for the hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate molecules to convert into kinetic energy. ...read more.

Middle

How the experiment will be carried out: Apparatus required: * 1x Tripod * 1x Bunsen burner * 1x Gauze * 1x Heat-proof mat * 1x Tile with black cross on it * 1x Stopwatch * 1x 100�C thermometer * 6x 150cm3 beakers * 6x 50cm3 water/sodium thiosulphate mixture (20cm3 thiosulphate and 30cm water) * 6x 5cm3 2M/litre hydrochloric acid Diagram of how the apparatus will be set up: Method: The apparatus will be set up as shown on the previous page. The sodium thiosulphate (40g/litre) / water mixture (20cm3 thiosulphate and 30cm3 water) will be heated to the desired temperature, then placed on the tile with a thick, black cross drawn on it. The cross will be observed from above, the 5cm3 of 2M/litre hydrochloric acid added and the timer started. The reaction will be observed and the timer will be stopped when the reaction is completed and turns so murky, that the cross will no longer be visible from above. Each experiment at each temperature will be repeated twice. This is so we can get an average in results, rather than just one anomalous one. ...read more.

Conclusion

The dependant variable, the one we will record in our results is the time taken for the completed reaction. The temperature will affect the rate of the reaction. The higher the temperature, the quicker the rate of reaction, thus the reaction time will be less. At low temperatures e.g. 20�C and 30�C, the reaction will take much longer. This is because little heat energy is being given out from the sodium thiosulphate. Thus, little is transferred into kinetic energy for the hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate molecules. The reaction time is longer, because, with little kinetic energy, the molecules are moving around slowly, the chances of a successful collision between molecules is low, and even so, in some collisions, there wont even be enough activation energy for the molecules to combine and react. At higher temperatures, however, there is a lot of heat energy being converted into kinetic energy for the molecules. As they are moving around much faster, the chance of collisions between molecules is increased, and there will almost certainly be enough activation energy to combine the molecules. Thus the reaction time will be a lot less than the same experiment done at a lower temperature. Olek Zydron 10MS 1 ...read more.

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