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What is Ammonia?

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Ammonium is a cation which is positively charged. Ammonia is a chemical compound which is well known for its sharp odour and is a useful component for all life forms It consists of nitrogen atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms. Ammonia is a weak base and can be used to make explosives from the elements nitrogen and hydrogen. Ammonia is also toxic to human in high concentrations and can cause injury to the lungs. In the harbour process the substance you begin with (reactants) will change into a new substance (products) however this change is reversible reaction and can change back to its original form. The commercial production of ammonia is used in the harbour process because it's much faster and cheaper way of producing food. This reaction is exothermic which means energy is released. The balanced equation for this: The harbour process is used for manufacture of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. There are many ways ammonia could be used e.g. ...read more.


Catalyst: a catalyst is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without getting involved in the reaction itself. The catalyst lowers the activation energy for the reaction so more particles will have the minimum amount of energy required to form products so the reaction rate increases and does not effect the position of the equilibrium. In industrial practice, the iron catalyst is prepared by exposing a mass of magnetite, an iron oxide, to the hot hydrogen feedstock. This reduces some of the magnetite to metallic iron, removing oxygen in the process However, the catalyst maintains most of its bulk volume during the reduction, and so the result is a highly porous material whose large surface area aids its effectiveness as a catalyst. The industrial conditions for producing ammonia the temperature must be 450�C to 500�C. The forward reaction (to form ammonia) is exothermic (it gives out heat). If we remove heat as a product (cooling the reaction down) will result in the equilibrium mixture making richer ammonia. ...read more.


The benefits of using a nitrogenous fertilizers is obvious because the crops grow taller, and are healthier therefore yielding a higher crop and therefore cheaper, more plentiful food. Cheaper food is a basic necessity for humans this is one of the major advantages of fertilisers. Environmental issues In this process there are always disadvantages. Occur after applying the fertilizer and when it rains too much it rains it gets into the steams or rivers and pollutes them. In the rivers, the fertilizer does the same as it would on land, the river plants grow and algae grow rapidly because of the abundant food supply. Bacteria feed on the dead plant material use up the oxygen in the water. Therefore resulting in lack of oxygen for the all the living sea creatures which will make them die. This process is however good in terms but its disadvantages has a big effect to our environment. Also pollution of water occurs which is a major concern to all human beings. ?? ?? ?? ?? Nasra kassim Task 2 chemistry ...read more.

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