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# Achieving Neutrality

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Introduction

Jasmine Yu November 25th 2008 Lab Report Achieving Neutrality: Balanced Ratios of Acids to Bases Abstract (Chae-Yoon) Neutralize the acid + base solution, where acid is a proton donor substance of base that gives a solution hydrogen ion activity and a base is the proton accepter compound that reacts with an acid, can be predicted by balancing its reaction equation. In this experiment, we used H2SO4 for acid and NaOH for base. So our balanced equation was H2SO4+2NaOH � 2H2O + Na2SO4, which allows us to know about how much acid and base is needed. Our prediction is that the solution of 5mL of H2SO4 and 10mL of NaOH will turn green when we add the universal indicator, meaning that it's neutralized with pH of 7.0. pH is the measure of acidity of a solution which depends on the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution. First, we made acid + base solution, then added one drop of universal indicator. Since the color of the neutralized solution was too dark, we added extra 0.05mL of acid. However, the color immediately changed into bright orange, so two extra drops of base were added. After that, the color was turned back into darkish green. Finish performing the experiment, our prediction was proved to be true as the solution of acid + base turned into darkish green by the ratio of one to two, although it should not be too dark. ...read more.

Middle

To get an accurate result that everyone else can get you must balance the reactions before attempting to neutralize it, because you want to know exactly how much acid is needed to neutralize a base and vice-versa. Our hypothesis is that the reaction equation is balanced and it can predict the ratio of acid and base to be mixed. Our prediction is that if we mix 5mL of H2SO4 and 10mL of NaOH the solution will turn green when the universal indicator is added. The independent variable of our experiment was the amount of acids to bases needed to balance each other out. The dependent variable was the change of color when the drops were added. The controlled variables were the types of solutions used and the amount used. Introduction (Moe) If you mix a chemical with another chemical, it might not react, because it is not balanced. When the chemical reacts with others, it balances out with each other. We can determine if it is balanced by balancing equations, it is behind + predicts the ratio of acid + base to be mix. Humans also use this in their bodies "Acid-base buffers confer resistance to a change in the pH of a solution when hydrogen ions (protons) or hydroxide ions are added or removed." ...read more.

Conclusion

Reflection (Nana) In this experiment, our group balanced acids and bases to get a neutral solution. First, we chose acids and bases, which acids are H2SO4 and bases are NaOH. Then we balanced reaction equation to predict the ratio of acid and base to be mixed. After we made a prediction, we performed reaction. What we did well as a group was that we organized and planned very well on procedure, we carefully recorded results, we discussed how to be successful of this experiment, and we cleaned the materials effectively. What was bad about execution was that we could have used more accurate equipments, which can make the results more precise. To improve the accuracy of the experiment and of our procedure in the future, we can use more accurate and better materials for the measuring, such as pipette and the graduated pipette, instead of using the beaker. Also, we could have measured 0.4ml by more accurate equipment, not by using graduated cylinder. What I've learned about scientific experiments and design was that we have to be accurate in the way of materials and of recording the result, which is be organized, be prepared, and to make a good plan, and to record the results more carefully. These improvements can apply on to any scientific experiments in the future, and it will lead us to the successful experiment and to precise results. ...read more.

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