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GCSE: Organic Chemistry

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  1. Carbon chemistry

    I will place the lithium into water and shut the stopper as quickly as possible to prevent gas from escaping. 5) I will then weigh the lithium and record my results From knowing that 1 mole of gas occupies 24,000cm� at room temperature and pressure I can deduce the amount of moles that I collected from the experiment Moles = 170 � 24,000 = 0.00708 With these figures I can deduce the number of moles from lithium that reacted by using the ratio of lithium to hydrogen in the reaction 2Li (s)

    • Word count: 851
  2. WHICH PART OF AN EGG HAS MORE PROTEIN?

    Once the heated solution was taken out of the beaker, another 5ml of water was added so that the chicken didn't stick to the bottom of the filter paper during the filtration. 7. The heated solution was filtered and the solid residues removed. 8. The filtrate was then collected and transferred into a boiling tube, where it was divided into two samples of about two fingers, an extra one and the control. 9. 2-3 drops of copper sulphate (CuSO4)

    • Word count: 726
  3. Hydrolysis of an Ester

    I attached a condenser to the top of the flask and heated the contents gently until they boiled. I then refluxed the contents for 15 minutes. 3. I allowed the flask to cool and poured the solution slowly into a beaker leaving the anti-bumping granules in the flask. I added 10 drops of methyl orange indicator to the solution. The solution turned from colourless to orange. I then added 20cm3 of 2.0 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid to the solution. The solution turned pink and a precipitate formed immediately.

    • Word count: 634
  4. Which Alcohol is the Best Fuel?

    Next I will put the polystyrene insulating lid on the tin can, with a thermometer sticking through the middle. Now I will be ready to commence the experiment. I will light the fuel and start the stopwatch. After 120 seconds, I will stop the burning and record the temperature of the water. I will also record the mass of the alcohol again. Below is a diagram showing the setup of my experiment: After having now done the experiment, I have obtained the following results. These are shown below in the table. Alcohol Initial Mass (g) Initial Temp �C ?

    • Word count: 906
  5. affect of concentration

    The products of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and the marble chips are calcium chloride, water and carbon dioxide. CaCO3 (s) + 2HCI (aq) CaCI2 (l) + CO2 (g) My prediction is that the higher concentration of the acid, the faster rate of reaction. This is because a higher concentration of acid will contain more acid molecules per a set volume than a low concentration solution. This means that they will be a higher chance of calcium carbonate molecules colliding with the hydrochloric acid molecules and reacting.

    • Word count: 703
  6. To observe temperature change in Ethanol and Methanol

    Fair Test: To make this investigation a fair test, you're going to have to make sure you have all the equipment and that they are up to date, especially the jug. Put the same amount of into each jug; make sure the room temperature for both thermometers are the same before burning the fuels. Measure the flame and make sure that they are the same size. Check the temperature at the same time after every 1-minute for 10- minutes. Repeat this twice to get the average temperature.

    • Word count: 793
  7. Science Coursework:Methanol & Ethanol

    Ethanol is made from grains and is renewable. Prediction: I think methanol will have a higher temperature than ethanol because Fair test: The test was fair because the amount of water and temperature for both experiments were the same. The height of the flame was also the same and we timed each experiment for 10 minutes. We used the same equipment for both experiment. Safety: To make the experiment safe we tied back long hair, put on our goggles and cleared the space in front of us.

    • Word count: 423
  8. One World Crude Oil

    The crude oil I extracted from under the ground by placing a drilling platform within the sea drilling out the crude oil. Many things can be extracted from crude oils such as petroleum gas, naphtha, gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, lubricating oil, fuel oil and the residuals. Petroleum gas is used for heating cooking and making plastics. It's also common by the names: methane, ethane, propane and butane. It is often a liquid pressurised to create LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas). Naphtha or also called Ligroin it's a part of crude oil that is in the process of being able to be made into gasoline.

    • Word count: 692
  9. Do larger molecules produce more heat?

    Place the burner directly beneath the beaker. 6. Light the burner. 7. Adjust the ring clamp so that the distance between the flame and the base of the beaker is 3cm. 8. Heat the water until its temperature rises by about 30�C. 9. Put the cap back on the burner to extinguish the flame. 10. Weigh the alcohol burner again with the cap on, and record the result. 11. Repeat the experiment with the other 3 alcohols. ring clamp thermometer metal beaker 100ml water retort stand Burner Observations were made upon the experiment.

    • Word count: 789
  10. The aim of this experiment is to calculate the enthalpy change in various alcohols.

    In this experiment, the fuel to be used is alcohol. Seven different alcohols will be used. The general formula of an alcohol is CnH2n+1OH. The individual formulas are: methanol CH3OH ethanol C2H5OH propanol C3H7OH butanol C4H9OH pentanol C5H11OH hexanol C6H13OH octanol C8H17OH The reaction that is involved in burning alcohols is exothermic, as heat energy is lost. The energy is given off when the alcohol reacts with the oxygen in the air to form water and carbon dioxide. The longer alcohol molecules need more energy to break their bonds compared to smaller molecules, and so will be less energy efficient than the smaller alcohol molecules.

    • Word count: 845
  11. Hydro-Carbon Fuels and Society.

    There are several types of cracking including; * Thermal - you heat large hydrocarbons at high temperatures (sometimes high pressures as well) until they break apart. * Steam - high temperature steam (1500 degrees Fahrenheit / 816 degrees Celsius) is used to break ethane, butane and naphtha into ethylene and benzene, which are used to manufacture chemicals. * Visbreaking - residual from the distillation tower is heated (900 degrees Fahrenheit / 482 degrees Celsius, 755 Kelvin), cooled with gas oil and rapidly burned (flashed) in a distillation tower. This process reduces the viscosity of heavy weight oils and produces tar.

    • Word count: 950
  12. Physics - Delphi Automotives Needle Lift.

    However towards the second half of the twentieth century the mass production of semiconductors came underway. Chips based on the Hall effect inexpensive and so were able to be used in a wide range of instances The Hall effect Integrated Circuit is a very small chip that is made up of many transistors. It consists of a thin layer of silicon as a Hall generator (which works to a greater efficiency than gold) and several transistor circuits: to amplify the Hall voltage to the level required; to trigger output voltage with its growth; and to provide stable work without depending on the power supply voltage changes.

    • Word count: 789
  13. Alternative Fuels.

    The principal behind them is, simply, the combination of a small efficient petrol engine and a powerful electric motor. Combined they offer a impressive output with 60mpg+ easily achievable, the batteries for the electric motors cleverly store re-generated energy produced when the car brakes. In reality, modern 'common-rail' diesels have the edge over such hybrids. More powerful and cheaper to produce, they are currently proving to be the most worthwhile 'alternative fuel' cars. Common-rail technology has slashed diesel emissions, while returning excellent mpg. Such direct-injection technology is slowly being introduced to petrol engines too, with similar enhancements in fuel economy and emissions.

    • Word count: 625
  14. Segmentation and Targeting.

    Generally speaking, economic car driver will have a greater interest in saving on fuel. On the other hand, SUV drivers may not be as mindful about the fuel cost, presumably being able to afford SUV desensitize them to fuel cost in the first place. Public drivers refer to those who operate on mass transportation such as bus and subway as well as drivers for any public institution such as school and hospital. Any purchase decision to such vehicles must go through a series of official approvals. Public drivers are not particularly concerned about fuel cost on an individual level.

    • Word count: 584
  15. An Investigation to see how the energy released by burning Alcohols depends on the number of Carbon atoms they contain.

    To measure the amount of energy given out in each reaction, I need to measure the change in mass. Then, by calculating energy release and then using further calculations I can obtain values for the amount of energy released per carbon atom. Apparatus list: Methanol Spirit burner Ethanol Spirit burner Propanol Spirit burner Butanol Spirit burner Pentanol Spirit burner Tripod Can Burette Top pan Balance (accurate to .00 of a gram) Bunsen Burner Wooden Blocks Thermometer Apparatus set up: I need to do a few small trial experiments to make sure I get the best results possible.

    • Word count: 948
  16. Comparing the enthalpy changes of combustion of different alcohol's and fuels.

    evaporation * This will be weighed and the weight recorded * I will then set up the apparatus as shown above trying to keep the draft excluder ad need to the experiment as possible to reduce heat loss but not so close as to starve the reaction of oxygen, thus causing incomplete combustion * The water temperature will be

    • Word count: 382
  17. Choosing a good fuel.

    The choice of the fuel will depend on its cost, easy availability and its efficiency. Some of the chemical factors to be considered are: the calorific value of the fuel. A fuel that gives more calories per unit of weight would be a more ideal choice. The fuels that have oxygen in them usually have a less calorific value. The combustion of the fuel should be at a moderate rate. The burning of the fuel should release heat in a controlled manner so that the fire neither dies nor explodes.

    • Word count: 626
  18. Enthalpies of combustion.

    We then went back to our benches and recorded the final temperature as well. We put all of these in a table so that when we took it home we could record it on the computer. We put them all down into a spreadsheet on the computer and worked out the temperature rise per. Gram of alcohol used. We repeated each run twice. This is what the table looked like: Alcohol Initial Temp. (oC) Final temp. (oC) Temp. Change (oC)

    • Word count: 735
  19. To measure the energy released by a series of alcohols.

    - Put the chosen alcohol under the tin allowing the flame to just touch the bottom. - Leave it to heat up until the temperature rises by 30�c. - Weigh the alcohol again. Record the difference in temperature. The different alcohols that will be used are: - ethanol - propanol - butanol - pentanol The variables that must be kept the same are: - Mass of water - 50cm� - Temperature rise of 30�c - Same starting temperature The variable that needs to be changed is: - The type of alcohol used Diagram: Prediction: I think that the more bonds holding the carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms there are, the more energy will be released when the fuel is burned.

    • Word count: 997
  20. Carbon Monoxide Can Be Deadly.

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced whenever any fuel such as gas, oil, kerosene, wood, or charcoal is burned. If appliances that burn fuel are maintained and used properly, the amount of CO produced is usually not hazardous. However, if appliances are not working properly or are used incorrectly, dangerous levels of CO can result. Hundreds of people die accidentally every year from CO poisoning caused by malfunctioning or improperly used fuel-burning appliances. Even more die from CO produced by idling cars. Risks it poses in the home.

    • Word count: 533
  21. Observation - Alcohol No. Of Carbon atoms per Alcohol Initial Mass Final Mass?

    To calculate the energy produced or lost during these experiments I used the formula: DH= mass of water x 4.2 x Dt = J/g DM This is the formula m x x t where m is the mass of the water and c is the energy needed to heat up 1kg of the substance 1�C. We then divide this by 1000 to get the answer in kJ/mol but this requires me to multiply the answer by the r.m.m of the different alcohols these are: (R.M.M is the relative molecular mass which is the values of all the atoms added up together)

    • Word count: 820
  22. An experiment for comparing the enthalpy change of combustion of different alcohols.

    6.Ignite the burner with a match to heat the copper can, which contains water. 7.Place the heatproof mal around the apparatus to prevent the loss of heat energy. 8.Observe the thermometer and when the water temperature has raised 20C, remove the source of heat by placing the cover over the top of the burner. 9.Remove the burner, place it on the balance, and record the weight of the alcohol, then calculate the weight of alcohol used. 10.Calculate the enthalpy change of alcohol. 11.Repeat the above steps by using a fresh sample of water for investigate each one of the alcohols (methanol ethanol butan-1-ol and propan-1-ol, I choose them they are all primary alcohols with straight chains, only differ by CH2 chains), and record the results.

    • Word count: 971
  23. Planning - The aim of the experiment is to work out the enthalpy change of combustion of a fuel.

    The initial rise in the line represents the energy needed to break the bond - the activation energy This shows an endothermic reaction because the products are at a higher energy level than the reactants. The difference in height shows the energy taken in during the reaction. A combustion reaction is an oxidation reaction in which heat is given out. If there is heat, the combustion is described as burning. Substances that undergo combustion are called fuels. Alcohols are fuels. Alcohols are a class of chemical compounds, all of which consist of chemically bonded atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

    • Word count: 744
  24. Describe, in terms of production of photochemical smog, what is meant by primary pollutants and secondary pollutants in the atmosphere, and list the main primary and secondary pollutants produced as a result of motor vehicles.

    The dangers they pose range from eye irritation to global warming. Many of the primary pollutants undergo further reaction under the influence of sunlight.

    • Word count: 218
  25. In this experiment, I plan to find out the difference in energy release between different sorts of alcohols. To do this I will test how much alcohol is required to increase the temperature of 100ml of water by 30 degrees Celsius.

    This should be followed by Propanol, then Ethanol and finally, the alcohol that will grace us with most weight loss will be Methanol. This is also backed up by the secondary data I obtained from the data book. That is as follows: Methanol -715 kJ per mole Ethanol -1371 kJ per mole Propanol -2010 kJ per mole Butanol -2673 kJ per mole Overall I will take three recordings for ethanol, and measure the weight before and after each attempt. I will then repeat this procedure in an identical way for each other alcohol.

    • Word count: 964

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