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GCSE: Organic Chemistry
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This mechanical energy is transmitted to the drive wheels of the car, enabling it to move. Petrol also contains various additives such as lubricants, rust inhibitors and anti-knock agent. Some hydrocarbons have a tendency to ignite spontaneously before maximum compression is achieved. This premature explosion, known as knocking, still forces the piston downwards and powers the vehicle. However, the chemical energy in the petrol is less efficiently converted into mechanical energy. As a result, the vehicle will do fewer miles per gallon. Knocking also causes a rough ride and excessive engine wear as the explosion is occurring as the piston is still moving up in its cylinder.
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I will do the experiment three times and collect the results, and take the average. I will also do preliminary tests and make changes to the equipment set up based on the results. I will need to keep the volume of water the same each time. Also, the distance between the flame and the boiling tube will be the same each time. This will keep the test fair and prevent any serious deviation in results. DIAGRAM OF APPARATUS SCIENTIFIC THEORY Energy is released by the breaking of bonds. To determine how much energy is released I must know how much energy went in originally.
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In Canada Ethanol is made by growing crops like primary corn, wheat and barley. But nowadays as the technology is getting better and better it is providing opportunities to also produce Ethanol from forestry products like wood chips and also agricultural deposits like straw, grass and hay. The basic process of making Ethanol involves conversion of starch, which is present in high concentration in the grain or seed of the agricultural crops like Corn, Barley and Wheat. The starch is converted into sugar by using enzymes and by fermentation of sugar through yeast. During this process the yeast converts the sugar to Ethanol and Carbon Dioxide.
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Before the experiment you have to check all of the risks involved. Risk Assessment Chance of water/ alcohol Wear goggles Spraying in eyes Burned Hair Tie hair up Setting Bench on fire Use bench mat I will do each experiment twice to make sure the results are reliable and I can do some averages. The equipment I will need to do this experiment is: * Clamp * Boss * Stand * Tin with water * Thermometer * Bench mat * Alcohol (methanol, Ethanol, Butanol and Propanol)
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Method The Diagram below shows the apparatus set up for burning a liquid fuel. - Put 100cm3 of cold water in a copper can and record its temperature - Support the copper can approximately 2cm over a spirit burner containing the fuel you are going to test. - Arrange a draught system to reduce energy loss. - Weigh the spirit burner - Replace the spirit burner under the copper can and light the wick - Use the thermometer to stir the water al the time it is being heated.
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Put 100ml of water into the beaker and check the mass of the filled beaker on the top-pan balance. 3. Record the temperature of the water in the beaker. 4. Light the burner and allow the fuel to burn for 2 minutes. 5. Record the temperature of the water in the beaker again. 6. Repeat the above steps for the other fuels. Safety I will be wearing goggles as the investigation uses glassware. If there are any spillages of fuel I will be wiping them up immediately.
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Method: Weigh the burner, keeping the cap on to stop any alcohol evaporating, then place the measuring cylinder on the tripod with 150ml of water at room temperature in it. Take a starting temperature. Then using the burner, burn underneath for 3 minutes. At the end take the temperature of the water and replace the cap on top of the burner. Weigh the burner and record results. Repeat this for the other 3 burners. Pre Testing: During my pre testing I found that when using ethanol the mass will go down with the temperature going up.
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I will also measure the height of the copper beaker above the bench I am working on. Using the measuring cylinder I will measure out 50ml of water, then pour this into the copper beaker. Then I will measure the temperature of the water using my thermometer. I will then light the spirit burner and measure the size of the flame on it, and note that down in my results. I will put the copper beaker firmly fixed into the clamp on the stand, and place the thermometer into the water in the copper beaker. I will then place the spirit burner directly underneath the copper beaker, making sure the tip of the flame touches it, so that the heat does not go up the side of the beaker.
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Equipment Spirit burners, thermometer, tin can, clamp stand, goggles, Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol, Pentanol, Hexanol. Method We will get an alcohol burner and weigh it with the alcohol we're using and then set up the tin can above the burner. We will put 100ml of water into the tin can and take the temperature then we will light the alcohol burner and wait until the temperature has risen by 50�C.
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- allows the correct amount of air to enter the compressor. Designed similar to a venturi tube. The throat is designed not to let air in at speeds above mach 1 even when the aircraft is travelling at speeds well above mach 1. If this type of intake was not used and air was allowed to enter the intake at speeds above mach1 the compressor becomes overloaded and cannot cope with the excess air, which makes the compressor vibrate, resulting in the compressor blades shattering.
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I predict that the different types of alcohol will affect the temperature change (energy released) because each molecule of the different alcohols gives different bonds, when the bonds are broken, different amounts of energy are given of when the new bonds are formed. e. f. For each experiment in the series I will put 100cm3 of water into the calorimeter and make sure the underside is scraped of soot. I will keep the distance between the spirit burner and calorimeter a constant, although the size of the flame may vary.
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I will need to keep all lose items off clothing tucked in e.g. my tie tucked in to shirt. The lids on the alcohols must be kept on at all times to prevent evaporation of the alcohol or any spillage's. Apparatus � Beaker � Thermometer � Measuring cylinder � Weight scales � Gauze � Tripod . 6 different alcohols . Wood block . Heat mat . Matches The method that I will use is as follows: � Measure 100ml of water into a beaker. � Record the starting temperature of the water. � Weigh the alcohol � put the chosen alcohol under the beaker allowing the flame to just touch bottom of the beaker.
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All equipment should be kept in the centre of the table to prevent spillage. After the experiment, also be careful handling the other equipment which might be hot like the tripod. Fair test: A number of precautions will need to be taken when doing the experiment to make sure everything is fair. * The container will always have to be kept the same, so the depth of the water stays the same. * The volume of water must be kept constant (503) and sensible amount of water must be used, as if to little is used the water could evaporate, and there will also be to big an increase in temperature.
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In order to enforce minimal heat loss, I would have to insulate the tin and burner to ensure that a) The water did not loose any heat and b) That all of the heat from the alcohols burner went to the water and that none was lost. Another reason for inaccurate results was incomplete combustion. This meant that the product were carbon and carbon monoxide, which can be further combusted to make carbon dioxide, so making up the heat loss.
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Three secondary macro nutrients: calcium (Ca), sulphur (S), magnesium (Mg). 3. And trace minerals (micro nutrients): boron (B), chlorine (Cl), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo) and selenium (Se). Without nitrogen, green plants would be weak and smaller than they should be. Phosphorus is vital to the growth and health of plants. It assists in converting the sun's energy and other chemicals (nitrogen)
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oxygen according to the following equations: C4H10+13O2 ï 8CO2 + 10H2O C4H8+6O2ï 4CO2 + 4H2O Both of these reactions are very exothermic in nature. Inducing Fluorine in excess into a container of Butene will precipitate a addition reaction when the double bond between Carbons 1 and 2 is broken and attached to Carbons 1 and Two is Fluorine, creating CH2FCHFCH2CH3 or 1,2-diflurobutane Whereas the induction of a halogen in excess into a container of Butane will
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