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GCSE: Organic Chemistry
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Plan: The apparatus I will be requiring for experiment are as follows: * One calorimeter * A clamp stand and clamp * Alcohols in spirit lamps: ethanol - C2H5OH propanol - C3H7OH butanol - C4H9OH pentanol - C5H11OH hexanol - C6H13OH * Matches * Water * Measuring cylinder * Thermometer * Safety glasses * Electronic balance This is the method I will be using: 1. Measure 100cm3 of water and pour into a colorimeter 2. Place the colorimeter in the grasp of the clamp stand 3.
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Put 100ml of water into the beaker and check the mass of the filled beaker on the top-pan balance. 3. Record the temperature of the water in the beaker. 4. Light the burner and allow the fuel to burn for 2 minutes. 5. Record the temperature of the water in the beaker again. 6. Repeat the above steps for the other fuels. Safety I will be wearing goggles as the investigation uses glassware. If there are any spillages of fuel I will be wiping them up immediately.
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Afterwards, measure the fuels mass on the scales again and record the waters temperature after the experiment. Record all the results in three different tables divided by the number of runs for each experiment. Once all the fuels have been tested three times find the average of results and record them on a different table. Work out the average temperature rise by subtracting the temperature after experiment by the temperature before and then average it out using all 3 runs. And also work out the energy released by finding the average mass of burnt fuel and then use this formula and record it on a table: Energy released = mass of water x 4.2 x average temperature rise Mass of burnt fuel DIAGRAM: RISK ASSESSMENT: Alcohols and hydrocarbons are flammable and vaporise quickly and easily.
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bond it produces -743Kjmol-1 of energy. To make an O?H (oxygen to Hydrogen) bond it produces - 463 kjmol-1 of energy. I am now going to use this information to calculate the total energy required to break the bonds on the left hand side of each equation and then how much energy is produced when it makes the bonds on the right hand side and therefore predict how much energy per mole is going to be produced at the end. Methanol: Methanol + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + water 2CH3OH + 3O2 ?
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Method: Weigh the burner, keeping the cap on to stop any alcohol evaporating, then place the measuring cylinder on the tripod with 150ml of water at room temperature in it. Take a starting temperature. Then using the burner, burn underneath for 3 minutes. At the end take the temperature of the water and replace the cap on top of the burner. Weigh the burner and record results. Repeat this for the other 3 burners. Pre Testing: During my pre testing I found that when using ethanol the mass will go down with the temperature going up.
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Initial mass of crucible (g) Final mass of crucible (g) Initial temp (oC) Final temp (oC) Rise in temp (oC) Methanol Ethanol Propanol Methanol Mass of [Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol] burned (g) Moles of [Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol] burned (g) Rise in temp (oC) Heat given out in reaction (kJ) Heat given out per mole (kJ) Ethanol Mass of [Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol] burned (g) Moles of [Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol] burned (g) Rise in temp (oC) Heat given out in reaction (kJ) Heat given out per mole (kJ) Propanol Mass of [Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol] burned (g) Moles of [Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol] burned (g)
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To measure the energy released by 1g of fuel from a series of alcohols which represent hydrocarbons.
Take care when handing the fuels and wash your hands if the fuel is spilt yourself. Results: Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Fuel Mass of fuel before (g) Mass of fuel after (g) Temp to start Temp after Mass of fuel before (g) Mass of fuel after (g) Temp to start Temp after Mass of fuel before (g) Mass of fuel after (g) Temp to start Temp after Methanol - - - - - - - - - - - - Ethanol 191.70 187.97 25 45 207.26 206.58 23 37.5 191.31 190.38 22.3 41.1 Propanol 216.25 213.76 28 73 239 235.8 22 60 224.17 220.76 22.3 35.2 Butanol 215.09 212.77 26 49.5 231.13 227.84 24
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7. Replace water with cool water after the beaker has returned to room temperature 8. Repeat the stage for the same alcohol. 9. Repeat method for the other alcohols. How was it made a fair test? To make this a fair test I had to keep all the variables the same when using all alcohols The variables I needed to keep the same were: - ? Volume of water because if I didn't then it will take more energy to heat the larger volumes than it would the smaller volumes. I decided to use 200ml of water because I thought if I used any more it would take up a lot more energy from the alcohol and would have taken a long time for the experiment to be repeated.
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Water Clamp stand and clamp Tin can Thermometer Draught screens (optional) Heatproof mat Card above water Measuring cylinder Safety To prevent any injury we have to wear safety glasses and make sure all bags are out of the way. Diagram Variables Keep the same Change � Mass of the water 100cm � Same set of scales � Weigh the spirit burner with the lid on. � The height of the beaker from the wick � The type of alcohol used � Same tin can � Temperature rise of 25�C.
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I will work out the heat of combustion as shown below. The example I have worked out is butanol. The bond values are taken from the structure equation, Once the values for both the reactants and the products we calculate the heat of combustion by taking away the energy out from the amount of energy in. Butanol heat of combustion workings out I will work out the heat of combustion as shown below. The example I have worked out is butanol. The bond values are taken from the structure equation, Once the values for both the reactants and the products we calculate the heat of combustion by taking away the energy out from the amount of energy in.
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x O - H 1 x 460 = 460 3 x O=O 3 x 496 = 1488 + 4708kj 4 x C=O 4 x 740 = 2960 6 x O-H 6 x 460 = 2760 + 5720kj 4708 - 5720 = -1012kj Propanol - C3H7OH C3H7OH + 4 1/2 O2 3CO2 + 4H2O 2 x C - C 2 x 350 = 700 7 x C - H 7 x 410 = 2870 1 x C - O 1 x 360 = 360 1 x O - H 1 x 460 = 460 4 1/2 x O=O 4 1/2 x
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I will also measure the height of the copper beaker above the bench I am working on. Using the measuring cylinder I will measure out 50ml of water, then pour this into the copper beaker. Then I will measure the temperature of the water using my thermometer. I will then light the spirit burner and measure the size of the flame on it, and note that down in my results. I will put the copper beaker firmly fixed into the clamp on the stand, and place the thermometer into the water in the copper beaker. I will then place the spirit burner directly underneath the copper beaker, making sure the tip of the flame touches it, so that the heat does not go up the side of the beaker.
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These are metals. Covalent- the sharing of electrons between atoms, completing it's outer shell. These are non-metals. An example is methane where four hydrogen shares an electron with a carbon atom. When some bonds are broken it is due to the energy which is supplied to the chemicals, these are endothermic reactions. When new bonds are formed energy is released, these are exothermic reactions. When new bonds are formed the energy produced by an exothermic reaction can be calculated, This formula is: Enthalpy change = Mass (volume of water) x SHC x Temp. rise (of water)
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The Babylonians and Egyptians discovered this fermentation and found the product of crushed grapes (also containing sugar) would be a drink with a kick. yeast glucose --� ethanol + carbon dioxide enzymes C6H12O6(aq) ---� 2C2H5OH(aq) + 2CO2(g) This alcohol is not always used as a fuel for combustion but also has an array of different purposes in industry and everyday life. It is an important solvent and raw material in making many other organic chemicals. Many everyday items such as paints, glues, perfumes and aftershaves use ethanol as a solvent, and notoriously for alcoholic drinks. Ethanol can be safely consumed but must only be drunk in moderation.
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Equipment Spirit burners, thermometer, tin can, clamp stand, goggles, Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol, Pentanol, Hexanol. Method We will get an alcohol burner and weigh it with the alcohol we're using and then set up the tin can above the burner. We will put 100ml of water into the tin can and take the temperature then we will light the alcohol burner and wait until the temperature has risen by 50�C.
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The heat energy released can be worked out from an equation. The equation is heat energy = vol of liquid x heat capacity (4.2) x temp change. Once this has been worked out you can find out the kJ/mol released if you have the mass. From the mass burnt you can find the number of moles burnt by doing mass/RMM of the alcohol. When you have the number of moles you divide the kJ released by this number and you get the kJ/mol released.
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If There Is a Relationship Between the Number of Carbon Atoms In Several Different Alcohols and the Heat of Combustion of Those Alcohols.
Repeat steps 2 - 6 twice more. 8. Repeat steps 2 - 7 for each of the other alcohols. Variables and Constants My variable will be:- number of carbon atoms present in the alcohol being tested. My constants will be:- increase in temperature. volume of water to be heated. Preliminary Experiment We were shown a preliminary experiment which we then used to develop our own methods. In the preliminary experiment a burner of hexane was weighed then placed under a can containing 100ml of water. The water was heated by 10�c then the burner was weighed again. This provided the basis for my method.
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in the formation of 1 mol of product. Below is the various types of bonds involved in the reactants in the combustion of methanol: (2CH3OH+3O2==>2CO2+4H2O): Reactant Product Bond Bond energy Amount Total H-C 412 6 2472 C-O 360 2 720 O-H 463 2 926 C-C 348 0 0 O-O 496 3 1488 Total 2079 13 5606 Bond Bond energy Amount Total H-C 412 0 0 C-O 360 4 1440 O-H 463 8 3704 C-C 348 0 0 O-O 496 0 0 Total 2079 12 5144 From this we can now tell that the total amount of energy released from burning a mol of methanol is only (5606-5144/2=)
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The beaker will also be heated, diverting some of the heat energy away from the water. I also predict that the heavier one mole of the alcohol is, the greater the molar heat of combustion will be. This is because the heavier the mole, the more bonds there are, and the more heat energy is required to break them, resulting in a higher heat of combustion. I predict that my line on my graph of results will be relatively straight. To help explain this, when the alcohol reacts with oxygen; water and carbon dioxide are produced.
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- allows the correct amount of air to enter the compressor. Designed similar to a venturi tube. The throat is designed not to let air in at speeds above mach 1 even when the aircraft is travelling at speeds well above mach 1. If this type of intake was not used and air was allowed to enter the intake at speeds above mach1 the compressor becomes overloaded and cannot cope with the excess air, which makes the compressor vibrate, resulting in the compressor blades shattering.
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This is the process where long chained alkanes are heated using a catalyst and due to this heat they break. The carbons then interconnect with other carbons to form mostly branched alkanes but sometimes two smaller chained alkanes. If this wasn't possible then the petrol would have a lower octane number and cause the engine to knock. Isomerisation : Petrol is formed when crude oil is seperated into its different components during fractional distillation. The crude oil is heated and sent into a distillation column.
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OH + 9O2 � 6CO2 + 8H2O = 2 moles of Propanol Structure of Reactants: 2x 9x H H H H - C - C - C - O - H O = O H H H = H - C x 14 (435) C - O x 2 (358) O - H x 2 (464) O = O x 9 (497) C - C x 4 (347) = 13595kj Structure of Products: 6x 8x O = C = O H - O - H = C = O x 12 (803)
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Calorimetery is a way to determine the amount of heat produced in a reaction. Calorimeters are devices to measure heat released by a reaction. This is the experiment I am going to use in order to measure the enthalpy change of combustion of my different alcohols. I am going to burn the alcohols in the presence of oxygen. The temperature of the calorimeter increases as heat is released by the reaction. With information of the change in temperature and the amount of fuel burned I can perform several calculations that will allow me to produce an accurate table of results and produce graphs that enable me to answer the brief.
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When I heating the measuring cylinder, I have to make sure the retort stand hold the measuring cylinder exactitude. Spirit burners are the safest way of burning the alcohol but we should not be to fill them. Scientific knowledge Stress the important of fair testing, for example the height of the flask above the wick. We can work out the number of moles used and find the energy produced per mole. A temperature sensor attached to a computer can be used in place of a thermometer. It can plot temperature change on a graph and allow better quantification of the heat produced.
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I predict that the different types of alcohol will affect the temperature change (energy released) because each molecule of the different alcohols gives different bonds, when the bonds are broken, different amounts of energy are given of when the new bonds are formed. e. f. For each experiment in the series I will put 100cm3 of water into the calorimeter and make sure the underside is scraped of soot. I will keep the distance between the spirit burner and calorimeter a constant, although the size of the flame may vary.
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